Philosophy Quotes & Ideas

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Aesthetics / Aesthetic Experience / Beauty / 5 Influential Ideas ✓ An ignorant soul is ugly-Plato ✓ Anything fine is difficult-Plato ✓ Beauty,benefit and pleasure guide action-Aristotle ✓ Beauty and goodness are the same-Plato Thought / Artificial Intelligence / Turing Test / 3 Influential Ideas ✓ A machine might just use a vast lookup table-Block ✓ Cats couldn't pass the Turing test-Kim ✓ Computers will % imitate humans-Turing ✓ Machines may speak, but not hold conversation-Descartes Aesthetics / Aesthetics / Aesthetics / 2 Influential Ideas ✓ Aesthetics assumes distinctive subject matter-Gardner ✓ Aesthetics is tied to Romanticism-Scruton ✓ Baumgarten founded aesthetics in the-Baumgarten ✓ Kant and Hegel founded aesthetics-Scruton Applied Ethics / Death Issues / Suicide / 2 Influential Ideas ✓ Contradiction if assisting suicide is illegal-Grayling ✓ Die unreconciled, not from free will-Camus ✓ No one in essence desires suicide-Spinoza ✓ Partake of life even if you go blind-Epicurus Applied Ethics / Practical Rights / Animal Rights / 2 Influential Ideas ✓ Animal intentionality causes our sympathy-Scruton ✓ Animals can't form justice contracts-Hermarchus ✓ Animals cannot claim to have rights-Ross ✓ Animals lack rights but we have duties to them-Scruton Applied Ethics / Death Issues / Euthanasia / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Legal euthanasia is an honourable death-More,T ✓ Nazi murders originated in their euthanasia-Glover ✓ People seek death to please other people-Kamisar ✓ Saving life, or prolonging death?-Glover Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Mathematics / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ += is true in the way stories are true-Field,H ✓ A priori by concepts, construction or reality-Kitcher ✓ Aesthetics in maths is explanatory-Kitcher ✓ All mathematical problems are solvable-Hilbert Smile, breathe and go slowly. - thich nhat hanhperson_outline Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Infinity / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Actual infinity awaits potential infinity-Read ✓ Adding two infinities is absurd-Locke ✓ An infinite set is similar to its proper part-Dedekind ✓ Ban infinities; allow boundless increase-Gauss Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / One / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ 'One' is the basis of numbers, not a number-Pythagoras ✓ 'One' is the most obvious idea of all-Locke ✓ 'One' isn't a property like 'wise'-Frege ✓ A unit makes something one-Euclid Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Zero / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ '' is refusal to answer 'how many?'-Husserl ✓ 'Zero' is defined, not primitive-Frege ✓ Geometrical maths links to lack of zero-Clegg ✓ Get from 'not identical with itself'-Frege Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Happiness / Nature Of Happiness / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Animals can never he happy-Aristotle ✓ For some 'not bad' is happiness-Nietzsche ✓ Happiness has no location or moment-Taylor,R ✓ Happiness is advancement towards perfection-Leibniz Power corrupts; absolute power corrupts absolutely. -john dalberg-actonperson_outline Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Happiness / Routes To Happiness / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Both mind and body should be exercised-Plato ✓ Children and animals cannot be happy-Aristotle ✓ Ecstasy is the highest state of man-Plotinus ✓ Freedom is the route to happiness-Aristippus elder Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Happiness / Value Of Happiness / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Are good acts just a means to eudaimonia?-Ackrill ✓ Aristotle has two sorts of eudaimonia-Nagel ✓ Consciousness must focus on pleasure and pain-Locke ✓ Ethics of flourishing is consequentialist-Harman Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Love / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Do good to him who has done you an injury-Lao Tzu ✓ Hate is conquered by love ✓ Love, and do what you will-Augustine ✓ Love for my children has intrinsic value-Frankfurt If you can’t handle me at my worst, then you sure as hell don’t deserve me at my best. -marilyn monroeperson_outline Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Pleasure / Sources Of Pleasure / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Achieve pleasure by developing character-Annas ✓ Diseased people like bad pleasures-Aristotle ✓ Moderation improves pleasure-Democritus ✓ Noble works give the greatest pleasure-Democritus Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Pleasure / Types Of Pleasure / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ All pleasures are essentially equal-Epicurus ✓ Choose only pleasures involving beauty-Democritus ✓ Existing is the only true pleasure-Hadot ✓ Food used to matter much more than sex-Foucault Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Dualism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Cartesian souls are not immaterial stuff-Lowe ✓ Descartes' 'mind' is not a substance-Crane ✓ The Ghost in the Machine is a category mistake-Ryle Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Dualism Of Mind Critique / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A dualist mind needs several 'special' powers-Papineau ✓ Accepting dualism is just giving up-Dennett ✓ Brain events with no cause or effect?-Kirk,R ✓ Dualism breaches conservation laws-Lycan Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Time / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Bone is a ratio of three elements-Empedocles ✓ Earth,air,fire and water are primary elements-Chrysippus ✓ Elements are atomic monads-Leibniz ✓ Elements are changed by Love and Hate-Empedocles Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Time / Existence Of Time / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A year must be complete to exist-Augustine ✓ All of time is non existent, in past or future-Aristotle ✓ Maybe past and future are real-Dummett ✓ No coexisting parts, so no time-Leibniz Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Time / Future / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ How can the future be short but non existent?-Augustine ✓ Past and present are necessary, but not future-Aristotle ✓ Present and past exist, but not future-Broad ✓ If the future is unreal, this is the end! Elements of Nature-Lewis I haven’t failed, i’ve found 10,000 ways that don’t work. -thomas edisonperson_outline Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Time / Time / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A places things in time; B is always relative-McTaggart ✓ A theory time exists; B theory is relative-Le Poidevin ✓ Define the present by light and Big Bang-Ellis ✓ Fix simultaneity by the Big Bang?-Ellis First do no harm. -hippocratesperson_outline Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Consciousness / Consciousness / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Consciousness is memory of immediate past-Marshall ✓ Mental states have qualities; everything has!-Heil ✓ Our phenomenal concepts are too vague-Papineau ✓ Sentience comes in degrees-Dennett Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Consciousness / Essence Of Consciousness / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Consciousness a process, not thing or property-Edelman&Tononi ✓ Consciousness is not experienced as spatial-Searle ✓ Consciousness must involve experience-Nagel ✓ Mind is directedness to externals-Sartre Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Consciousness / Purpose Of Consciousness / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Computers can't create axioms, minds can-Edelman&Tononi ✓ Consciousness is a malfunction of evolution-Zizek ✓ Consciousness is just a tool-Nietzsche ✓ Consciousness is not always a benefit-Dretske Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Qualia / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ 'Red' is a point in neural space-Edelman&Tononi ✓ Are pains motivational as well as qualia?-Kim ✓ Are qualia inexpressible knowledge?-Perry ✓ Are qualia more basic than intentionality?-Gildersleve Nature Of Minds / Mind / Other Minds / Knowing Other Minds / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Adopt behaviourism about other minds-Ayer ✓ Behaviour proves other minds-Locke ✓ By definition behaviour proves consciousness-Ayer ✓ Experience shows other minds exist-Berkeley Ontology / Identity / Intrinsic Identity / Self-Identity / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A 'thisness' is being identical with itself-Adams,RM ✓ A thing might exist relative to itself-Benardete,JA ✓ Frege made identity a logical notion-Frege ✓ Holmes exists, but is not self identical-McGinn It is always darkest just before the dawn. -thomas fullerperson_outline Religion / Monotheistic Religion / Christianity / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Allah has no son; he is self sufficient-Mohammed ✓ Christianity equates the world with evil-Schopenhauer ✓ Christianity is humility denying the elevated-Nietzsche ✓ Christianity is Platonism for the people-Nietzsche Religion / Monotheistic Religion / Islam / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Do not split your religion into sects-Mohammed ✓ Knowingly killing a believer leads to Hell-Mohammed ✓ Leave unbelievers to the judgement of Allah-Mohammed ✓ Make war on the unbelievers-Mohammed Religion / Monotheistic Religion / Judaism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Amos introduced justice and compassion-Amos ✓ Family is basic to Judaism and Christianity-Berlin ✓ Judaism stabilised in CE-Watson ✓ Religious heroes begin as outlaws-Johnson,P Religion / Polytheistic Religion / Hinduism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Brahman first, then Atman and Karma ✓ Damayata! Datta! Dayadhwam! ✓ Hindu's reincarnation is a very late idea-Flanagan ✓ Hinduism has no founder or organisation-Watson Religion / Polytheistic Religion / Paganism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Everyone should think clearly about the gods-Empedocles ✓ Paganism thanks and affirms life-Nietzsche ✓ The gods know evil deeds and thoughts-Thales ✓ There are many unmoved movers-Aristotle Nothing is certain except for death and taxes. -christopher bullockperson_outline Religion / Problem Of Evil / Human Evil / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Evil helps greater good and higher pleasure-Leibniz ✓ Moral evil may be needed to achieve free will-Plantinga ✓ People have enough autonomy for responsibility-Berkeley ✓ Sinful Adam's existence was preferred-Leibniz Religion / Religions / Religious Belief / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A city without religion is impossible-Plutarch ✓ Charity & ritual aren't the point of religion ✓ Do not love the world-John ✓ Mankind has produced , religions-Wilson,EO In three words i can sum up everything i’ve learned about life: it goes on. -robert frostperson_outline Religion / Spiritual Disciplines / Buddhism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A Buddha is a fully enlightened one-Conze ✓ Be mild, honest and generous ✓ Compassion, truth and sobriety save us-Buddha ✓ Eight steps to morality, wisdom, tranquillity-Ashvaghosha Religion / Spiritual Disciplines / Confucianism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Confucius was spiritual in a remote way-Watson Religion / Spiritual Disciplines / Taoism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Escape world, body, mind and nature-Watson ✓ Go with the flow, and be one with the void-Chuang Tzu ✓ People forget each other in the Tao-Chuang Tzu Religion / Spiritual Disciplines / Zen Buddhism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Feel the cosmic essence within you ✓ Feel the joy of being everywhere ✓ The serenity in blue sky beyond clouds Society / Elements / Elements Of Society / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A shared morality is the basis of a society-Aristotle ✓ Good laws and armies make a good state-Machiavelli ✓ Man is by nature a political animal-Aristotle ✓ People like company, not just mutual aid-Aristotle Society / Elements / History / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ All history of societies is of class struggles-Marx&Engels ✓ Historians share the illusions of their epoch-Marx&Engels ✓ History can never repeat itself ✓ History is a matter of industry and exchange-Marx&Engels Society / Elements / Law / Law / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ All legislation is just-Aristotle ✓ Crimes are sins, and sins are crimes-Johnson,P ✓ Easily changing the law weakens it-Aristotle ✓ Law is as vital as a city wall-Heraclitus It is always darkest just before the dawn. -thomas fullerperson_outline Society / Elements / Law / Natural Law / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Kant gave a non religious base for natural law-Scruton ✓ Medieval natural law was revived at Nuremberg-Jolley ✓ Natural justice benefits the exploiting wicked-Rousseau ✓ Natural justice is the same everywhere-Aristotle Society / Elements / War / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Conquest is normal, and never criticised-Machiavelli ✓ Fighting a just war is good ✓ Only Utopians fail to see glory in warfare-More,T ✓ Peace through war is fish up trees-Mencius On your last day on earth, the person you became will meet the person you could have become. ” — anonymousperson_outline Society / Principles / General Will / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ General will is said to back private property-Marx&Engels ✓ Society is each submitting to a general will-Rousseau ✓ Sum individual interests to get a community's-Bentham ✓ The 'general will' is not the 'will of all'-Rousseau Society / Principles / Legal Rights / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Duties without rights needs good payment-Goethe ✓ Society bestows rights to liberty and property-Rousseau Society / Principles / Natural Rights / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Allegiance comes before rights-Scruton ✓ For Hume property is merely conventional-Hume ✓ For Locke ownership is natural based on labour-Locke ✓ Freedom is absence of a contract-MacIntyre Society / Principles / Social Equality / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Democracy does not really support equality-Nagel ✓ Each constitution has its own distinct aim-Aristotle ✓ Egalitarianism must favour those at the bottom-Nagel ✓ Equal private whim or long term & objective?-Nagel Society / Principles / Social Freedom / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Abolition of slavery needs the steam engine-Marx&Engels ✓ Aim for maximum mutual freedom-Kant ✓ Appetite is slavery; inner laws are freedom-Rousseau ✓ Bondage and liberation frighten the fearful Without music, life would be a mistake. -friedrich nietzscheperson_outline Society / Structure / Anarchism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Governments unite against terrorist peoples-Baudrillard ✓ Nothing is worse for mankind than anarchy-Antiphon ✓ Powerlessness and goodness are linked-Jeremiah ✓ Why do anarchists drink herbal tea?-Summers Society / Structure / Communitarianism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Communities need friendship more than justice-Aristotle ✓ Extend family values into society-Mencius ✓ Freedom is only possible within a community-Marx&Engels ✓ Friendship involves sharing-Aristotle Society / Structure / Conservatism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Allegiance is basic to the conservative view-Scruton ✓ Modern societies are conspiracies of the rich-More,T Society / Structure / Democracy / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A group of fools is not collectively wise-Cicero ✓ Autonomous people can control governments-Mill ✓ Democracy encourages friendship-Aristotle ✓ Democracy is freedom for ignorance & passion-Plato Society / Structure / Liberalism / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Benefits of freedom outweigh drawbacks-Scruton ✓ Freedom, natural rights and tolerance-Scruton ✓ Locke shows implications of contractual state-Locke ✓ Rawls rests everything on conventional morals-Gray Society / Structure / Rulers / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Active authorities make restless people-Lao Tzu ✓ Elective aristocracy is the best government-Rousseau ✓ Good candidates shouldn't seek office-Aristotle ✓ Great rulers are invisible,the worst exploited-Lao Tzu Pain is inevitable. Suffering is optional. - m. Kathleen caseyperson_outline Society / Structure / Tyranny / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Balance disseminated power and efficiency-Mill ✓ Be generous, or destroy totally-Machiavelli ✓ Do all the nasty things at the start-Machiavelli ✓ Excess government power is evil-Mill Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. -john f. Kennedyperson_outline Thought / Content / Ideas / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Are 'ideas' concepts or propositions?-Scruton ✓ Berkeley used 'idea' for thing and act-Russell ✓ Simple ideas build complex ideas-Locke ✓ Thoughts involve senses, ideas don't-Leibniz Thought / Mechanics Of Thought / Psychology / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Most psychologists are now cognitivists-Hanna ✓ Psychology won't reduce to physical science-Davidson Thought / Modes Of Thought / Emotions / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Are reason and virtue to do with emotion?-Plutarch ✓ Are there just a few primary passions?-Cottingham ✓ Babies are emotional, but unaware of emotions-Carter,R ✓ Emotion is bad if it prevents thought-Spinoza Thought / Modes Of Thought / Imagination / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Pure understanding cannot be imagined-Kant ✓ Understanding is needed for imagination-Betteridge ✓ Imagination discovers more than the eye does-Joubert ✓ Imagination is crucial to thinking-Lowe Thought / Modes Of Thought / Rationality / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ 'Intuition' links reasoning to experience-Kant ✓ Emotions can be part of reason-Hursthouse ✓ Frogs starve to death surrounded by dead flies-Carter,R ✓ Human reason cannot be fully formalized-Nagel&Newman Thought / Modes Of Thought / Thought / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A thought is as real as a cannon ball-Joubert ✓ Association loses sense, reference, truth-Fodor ✓ Composing concepts in connectionism?-Fodor ✓ Depictive or descriptive mental imagery?-Hanna Truth / Truth Problems / Subjective Truth / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A theory of truth requires a subject-Kierkegaard ✓ The intrinsic mark of truth is 'adequacy'-Spinoza ✓ The truth is just economy of effort-Nietzsche ✓ True beliefs augment one's power-Nietzsche The true measure of a man is how he treats someone who can do him absolutely no good. -malcolm forbesperson_outline Truth / Truth Problems / Truth / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ 'Truth' is the will to master sensations-Nietzsche ✓ Anselm said truth is God-Anselm ✓ Epistemic truth allows ontological relativism-Putnam ✓ Falsehood must be possible in truth theories-Russell Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Humour / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ Funny things needn't be real-Scruton ✓ Humour describes and changes our lives-Critchley ✓ Humour is incongruity-Schopenhauer ✓ Humour is practical philosophy-Critchley Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Philosophy / Aims Of Philosophy / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ All humans desire to understand-Aristotle ✓ Always asking the use of things is pathetic-Aristotle ✓ Being and essence begin understanding-Avicenna ✓ How is actual possible if it looks impossible?-Macdonald Eighty percent of success is showing up. -woody allenperson_outline Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Philosophy / Philosophy / 1 Influential Ideas ✓ A good argument is worth a lot of money-Zeno of Citium ✓ Challenge problems to single combat!-Nietzsche ✓ Every philosopher is a Platonist-Roochnik ✓ Expect absurdities in philosophy-Russell Action / Rational Action / Intellectualism / Influential Ideas ✓ Bad people are ignorant-Aristotle ✓ Can pure reason determine the will?-Kant ✓ Courage is knowledge of what should be feared-Plato ✓ Cynicism was simple, needing no education-Diogenes of Sin Action / Rational Action / Practical Reason / Influential Ideas ✓ A ruler just needs practical wisdom-Aristotle ✓ All practical reason aims at good or evil-Kant ✓ Deliberation can influence our preferences-Searle ✓ Deliberation is about means to an end-Aristotle Action / Rational Action / Reasons To Act / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Internal' reasons provide a motive-Williams,B ✓ Belief and desire are reasons to act-Lowe ✓ Reasoned acts are the most responsible-Aristotle ✓ The reason for an action is its cause-Davidson A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. So is a lot. -albert einsteinperson_outline Action / Sources Of Action / Action Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ Action is moved caused by intentional states-Rowlands ✓ Actions are activities or performances-Simons ✓ Motive, reasons, or cause explain actions-Lowe Action / Sources Of Action / Action Theory / Volition, Belief/ Influential Ideas ✓ desire, or agent-Lowe Action / Willed Action / Weakness Of Will / Influential Ideas ✓ Akrasia and enkrateia separate will and desire-Aristotle ✓ Akrasia is bad reason, not opposed to it-Achtenberg ✓ Akrasia is judged after the event-Williams,B ✓ All actions follow from 'ought'-Socrates Action / Willed Action / Will / Influential Ideas ✓ All acts of will are bodily movements-Schopenhauer ✓ Libet gives empirical support for the will-Lowe ✓ Real motive is in the will, not in intellect-Schopenhauer ✓ Schopenhauer should have deified the will-Nietzsche Aesthetics / Aesthetic Concepts / Artistic Intentions / Influential Ideas ✓ Biography can show us more than intentions-Wimsatt&Beardsley ✓ Poetry needn't communicate intentions-Wimsatt&Beardsley ✓ The author's intentions are irrelevant-Wimsatt&Beardsley ✓ The intentional fallacy is a romantic one-Wimsatt&Beardsley Aesthetics / Aesthetic Concepts / Artistic Representation / Influential Ideas ✓ Art is two steps away from the truth-Plato ✓ Art treats truth as untrue-Scruton ✓ We admire resemblance to unadmirable things-Pascal Aesthetics / Aesthetic Concepts / Expression In Art / Influential Ideas ✓ Art as expression is Romantic-Scruton ✓ Expressing is good, arousing is bad-Scruton ✓ Expression refers without predication-Scruton First do no harm. -hippocratesperson_outline When the going gets tough, the tough get going. -proverbperson_outline Aesthetics / Aesthetic Concepts / Interpretation Of Art / Influential Ideas ✓ We can recapture the author's view-Croce Aesthetics / Aesthetic Experience / Aesthetic Attitude / Influential Ideas ✓ Aesthetic enjoyment is pleasure plus insight-Ross ✓ The aesthetic contains our values-Scruton Aesthetics / Aesthetic Experience / Taste / Influential Ideas ✓ Critics need causal links to their objects-Fogelin ✓ Taste needs both ability and experience-Hume ✓ Traditions show relevant comparisons-Scruton ✓ We can't tolerate a taste for poisons!-Leibniz Aesthetics / Aesthetic Judgement / Objectivism In Art / Influential Ideas ✓ Conventions are objective, traditions aren't-Scruton ✓ Groups of people are the best judge of art-Aristotle ✓ Pleasure is in us, but essential to art-Gardner ✓ We must treat aesthetics as objective-Kant Aesthetics / Aesthetic Judgement / Subjectivism In Art / Influential Ideas ✓ 'It's all taste' ignores the particulars-Fogelin ✓ One man's meat is another man's poison-Lucretius Aesthetics / Art Theories / Art And Morality / Influential Ideas ✓ A King is promising if he likes music-Mencius ✓ Beauty is the good, and they are identical-Chrysippus ✓ Good is active, but beauty can be static-Aristotle ✓ Judge books by writing, not morality-Wilde Aesthetics / Art Theories / Art As Expression / Influential Ideas ✓ Art improves the feelings of mankind-Tolstoy ✓ Art is like understanding language-Goodman ✓ Art needs beauty of form, idea and expression-Winckelmann ✓ Art uses signs to hand on a man's feelings-Tolstoy Aesthetics / Art Theories / Art As Form / Influential Ideas ✓ Beauty is order, and linked to maths-Aristotle ✓ Beauty is order of parts and whole-Baumgarten ✓ Only artists can discern significant form-Bell,C Aesthetics / Art Theories / Ontology Of Art / Influential Ideas ✓ Art works exist in the artist's mind-Gardner Aesthetics / Art Theories / Value Of Art / Influential Ideas ✓ All art is quite useless-Wilde ✓ Art's purpose is to reveal humanity's beauty-Schopenhauer ✓ Art can liberate us from selfhood-Schopenhauer ✓ Artists stir up the irrational against reason-Plato Aesthetics / Arts / Literature / Influential Ideas ✓ Poetry is the rival of mathematics-Badiou Be yourself, everyone else is taken. -oscar wildeperson_outline Aesthetics / Arts / Music / Influential Ideas ✓ Music is a form of love-Plato ✓ Music is not representational-Scruton ✓ Music is the harmony of numbers-Leibniz ✓ Must every note of a performance be accurate?-Simons Applied Ethics / Death Issues / Abortion / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Sanctity of life' will increase abnormalities-Glover ✓ A brainless foetus is easier to abort-Dennett ✓ A right to life is not a right to your mother-Thomson ✓ Abortion and non conception are similar-Glover Applied Ethics / Death Issues / Causing Death / Influential Ideas ✓ A killing must prevent other deaths-Glover ✓ A life is worth saving if it is worth living-Glover ✓ Any unjust killing is like mass murder-Mohammed ✓ Kill, provide the deceased is replaced?-Glover Applied Ethics / Death Issues / Death / Influential Ideas ✓ Are we real or unreal after we die?-Le Poidevin ✓ Death is permanent loss of consciousness-Glover ✓ Death may be no worse than dreamless sleep-Socrates ✓ Death terrifies if one hasn't lived-Svendsen Applied Ethics / Decision Conflicts / Applied Ethics / Influential Ideas ✓ Doing and allowing need clearer distinction-Jackson ✓ Food first, then ethics-Critchley ✓ Life isn't sacred or a right but good & wanted-Glover ✓ Intended harm bad; foreseen harm possible-Glover Applied Ethics / Decision Conflicts / Autonomy / Influential Ideas ✓ Autonomy favours actual present opinions-Glover ✓ Autonomy matters more if it is important-Glover ✓ Others' benefit justifies restricting freedom-Glover ✓ If people don't mind death, you can kill them?-Glover Applied Ethics / Decision Conflicts / Dilemmas / Influential Ideas ✓ Better to die than do extreme evil-Aristotle ✓ Dilemmas are apparent rule conflicts-Hursthouse ✓ Forced dishonesty is not the vice itself-Hursthouse ✓ Forced vices are bad if they ruin a good life-Hursthouse Applied Ethics / Decision Conflicts / Double Effect / Influential Ideas ✓ An unintended side effect harm is legitimate-Grayling ✓ Four conditions for double effect actions-Mautner ✓ What is foreseen, and what is intended-Mautner Applied Ethics / Decision Conflicts / Omissions / Influential Ideas ✓ Disaster better if omission rather than action-Glover ✓ Neglect can be as a bad action-Glover ✓ Omissions are inevitable, but bad acts aren't-Glover ✓ Initial fatal events is worse than diversion-Foot Applied Ethics / Practical Rights / Rights / Influential Ideas ✓ Rights imply the capacity for desire-Glover ✓ There is no 'right to life'-Glover Applied Ethics / Practical Rights / Sexual Morality / Influential Ideas ✓ Love of pleasure leads humans to homosexuality-Plutarch ✓ Lust is pleasure, and awareness of power-Hobbes ✓ Seduction is worse than rape-Socrates ✓ Sex looks contemptible and should be secret-Plato Time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time. -marthe troly-curtinperson_outline Applied Ethics / Punishment / Deterrence / Influential Ideas ✓ Our robbers are undeterred by threats of death-Cicero Applied Ethics / Punishment / Punishment / Influential Ideas ✓ Only execute if there is unanimity-Mencius ✓ Protagoras separated punishment & revenge-Protagoras ✓ Punish theft by cutting off hands-Mohammed ✓ Purposes of punishment can conflict-Fogelin Applied Ethics / Punishment / Retribution / Influential Ideas ✓ Greek had one word for avenge and punish-Vlastos ✓ Pardon faults, which are never intentional-Aristippus elder ✓ Punishment is either reform or deterrence-Hobbes ✓ Retribution is better than hospital for crimes-Kant Ethics / Contract Ethics / Contract Strategies / Influential Ideas ✓ One who always does good is a doormat-Hobbes ✓ Return justice for injustice-Socrates ✓ To seem upright, be upright-Hare Ethics / Contract Ethics / Contractarianism / Influential Ideas ✓ A contract needs prior shared values-MacIntyre ✓ A society is needed to make contracts-Hegel ✓ Aim at agreement which excludes selfishness-Rawls ✓ Benefit is mutual, like two hands washing-Epicharmus Ethics / Contract Ethics / Contractualism / Influential Ideas ✓ Right actions have reasonable justifications-Sext Empiricus Ethics / Contract Ethics / Free Rider / Influential Ideas ✓ All social morality has the free rider problem-Scruton ✓ Contractarians have problems with the strong-Williams,B ✓ Deliberate contract breakers can't be citizens-Hobbes ✓ Penance isn't virtue-Plato Ethics / Contract Ethics / Game Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ Game theory misses impersonal motivation-Nagel Ethics / Contract Ethics / Golden Rule / Influential Ideas ✓ Don't do to others what you wouldn't like-Confucius ✓ The 'golden rule' implies no duties-Kant ✓ The Golden Rule assumes acts will be requited-Nietzsche ✓ The Golden Rule is the basis of morality-Voltaire Ethics / Contract Ethics / Prisoner's Dilemma / Influential Ideas ✓ The first actor in a contract is vulnerable-Hobbes Ethics / Contract Ethics / Promise Keeping / Influential Ideas ✓ A promise gives me a reason to act-Searle ✓ Men are bad, so you can break promises-Machiavelli ✓ Promise keeping is relative-Plato ✓ Promises concern the past, not consequences-Ross If you are going through hell, keep going. -winston churchillperson_outline Ethics / Contract Ethics / Value Of Authority / Influential Ideas ✓ Authority prevents breaking of contracts-Hobbes ✓ Hobbes can only accept authority through fear-MacIntyre ✓ Morality is imposed by the powerful-Plato ✓ The merciful shall obtain mercy-Jesus Ethics / Deontological Ethics / Deontology / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Deon' meant 'what one must do'-Williams,B ✓ Christianity introduced ethics as law-Anscombe ✓ Codifiable morals have rules, not wisdom-Hursthouse ✓ Consequences can make a rule apparent-Hursthouse Ethics / Deontological Ethics / Duty / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Duty to myself' is nonsense-Williams,B ✓ A holy will has no duties, but IS moral law-Kant ✓ An ethics of duty needs religion-Taylor,R ✓ Be faithful, grateful, just, kind, improved-Ross Ethics / Deontological Ethics / Motivation For Duty / Influential Ideas ✓ A holy will has to follow the moral law-Kant ✓ Autonomous rational beings ignore others-Williams,B ✓ Duty doesn't explain outstanding moral deeds-Annas ✓ Good actions for fun are not moral-Kant Ethics / Deontological Ethics / Persons As Ends / Influential Ideas ✓ For rational beings their existence is an end-Kant ✓ Rational beings are ends, not just means-Kant ✓ Treat humanity as an end, not a means-Kant Ethics / Deontological Ethics / Universalisability / Influential Ideas ✓ 'What if everybody cheats?' misses the point-Graham ✓ A maxim can be highly personalised-Kant ✓ Acts can be described in innumerable ways-Ross ✓ Aim to be objective without total detachment-Nagel Ethics / Egoism / Cyrenaic School / Influential Ideas ✓ All pleasures are the same-Aristippus young ✓ People often prefer money to pleasure-Aristippus elder ✓ Physical pleasure is better than mental-Aristippus young ✓ Pleasure is desired and final, pain avoided-Aristippus elder Ethics / Egoism / Ethical Egoism / Influential Ideas ✓ A healthy mind behaves well even if invisible-Plato ✓ A powerful ego and powerful love go together-Nietzsche ✓ Aristocrats don't worry about 'egoism'-Nietzsche ✓ Egoism can't guide the formation of desires-Graham Ethics / Egoism / Hedonism / Influential Ideas ✓ A jellyfish can experience pure pleasure-Plato ✓ All human activity aims at pleasure-Metrodorus of Lamp ✓ Good and evil are pleasure and pain-Locke ✓ Happiness is sensual self indulgence-Plato Ethics / Existentialism / Boredom / Influential Ideas ✓ Boredom is lack of personal meaning in things-Svendsen ✓ Boredom itself can be boring-Svendsen ✓ Boredom threatens our psychic survival-Frankfurt ✓ Even suicide could not overcome boredom-Svendsen Ethics / Existentialism / Existentialism / Influential Ideas ✓ All we have left is experiments in morality-Nietzsche ✓ Can existentialism condemn the sincere Nazi?-Graham ✓ Death, and intensity of life, matter-Camus ✓ Essence must precede existence-Descartes Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving. -albert einsteinperson_outline Ethics / Existentialism / Nihilism / Influential Ideas ✓ Belief in invented categories brings nihilism-Nietzsche ✓ Freedom is the end of moral certainty-Nietzsche ✓ Happiness and the absurd go together-Camus ✓ Jacobi introduced the idea of nihilism-Jacobi Ethics / Utilitarianism / Ideal Utilitarianism / Influential Ideas ✓ Utilitarianism seeks ideals, not just pleasure-Rashdall Ethics / Utilitarianism / Ideal Of Pleasure / Influential Ideas ✓ Better Socrates dissatisfied than a happy fool-Mill ✓ Only pleasure and no pain are desirable-Mill ✓ Value pleasure and pain by their force-Bentham ✓ What has value is prior to what is useful-Russell Ethics / Utilitarianism / Motivation For Altruism / Influential Ideas ✓ People don't want to inflict pointless pain-Hume ✓ Private affection motivates better than public-Hume ✓ The general good is collective self interest-Mill ✓ Utilitarianism is slave morality-Nietzsche Ethics / Utilitarianism / Rule Utilitarianism / Influential Ideas ✓ General rules override local rules-Mill ✓ Only act utilitarianism makes sense-Glover Ethics / Utilitarianism / Unfairness / Influential Ideas ✓ Some murders seem to increase happiness-PG ✓ Imagine millions happy at the expense of one-James Ethics / Utilitarianism / Utilitarianism / Influential Ideas ✓ Aim at greatest happiness of greatest number-Hutcheson ✓ All individuals are obviously equal-Sidgwick ✓ Consequences and responsibility are different-Graham ✓ Do utilitarians oversimplify hard cases?-Hursthouse Ethics / Virtue Theory / Elements Of Virtue Theory / Absolute Virtues / Influential Ideas ✓ Adultery is just wrong, without a mean-Aristotle ✓ One must avoid even speaking of evil deeds-Democritus ✓ Virtue allows more than one right action-Hursthouse Ethics / Virtue Theory / Elements Of Virtue Theory / Character / Influential Ideas ✓ Activity develops character-Aristotle ✓ Adjust your own character-Socrates ✓ Avoid vice, akrasia and brutishness-Aristotle ✓ Character concerns our non rational part-Aristotle Ethics / Virtue Theory / Elements Of Virtue Theory / Desires / Influential Ideas ✓ Too many desires is the worst crime-Lao Tzu Ethics / Virtue Theory / Elements Of Virtue Theory / Living Naturally / Influential Ideas ✓ How to be natural, if you are 'unnatural'?-Nietzsche ✓ Humanity has never yet been 'natural'-Nietzsche ✓ Life is more like wrestling than dancing-Aurelius ✓ Live according to our natural starting points-Panaetius The true measure of a man is how he treats someone who can do him absolutely no good. -malcolm forbesperson_outline Ethics / Virtue Theory / Elements Of Virtue Theory / Mean / Influential Ideas ✓ Be indifferent to intermediate things-Ariston ✓ Excess and deficiency are both wrong-Confucius ✓ Feelings also have a mean-Aristotle ✓ Making anger appropriate is hard-Aristotle Ethics / Virtue Theory / Elements Of Virtue Theory / Motivation For Virtue / Influential Ideas ✓ A bad life is just a drawn out death-Democritus ✓ A strong desire for virtue is unusual-Plato ✓ All the virtues should be pursued-Plato ✓ All virtues must be beneficial to someone-Hume Ethics / Virtue Theory / Elements Of Virtue Theory / Natural Virtue / Influential Ideas ✓ Good animals have characteristic virtues-Hursthouse ✓ Natural virtue without brains can be harmful-Aristotle ✓ Virtue is unnatural, unlike falling stones-Aristotle ✓ We are partly responsible for our virtues-Aristotle Ethics / Virtue Theory / Elements Of Virtue Theory / Right Feelings / Influential Ideas ✓ Emotivism means you can't judge emotions-MacIntyre ✓ Goodness is a state of mental health-Plato ✓ Lusting after a woman is adultery-Jesus ✓ Morality involves desires about desires-Rey Ethics / Virtue Theory / Elements Of Virtue Theory / Teaching Virtue / Influential Ideas ✓ Aquinas wants to transform our desires-Aquinas ✓ Education is training correct feelings-Aristotle ✓ Habitual good deeds lead to virtue-Aristotle ✓ Law aims at creating virtue-Plato Ethics / Virtue Theory / Elements Of Virtue Theory / Unity Of Virtue / Influential Ideas ✓ A strong virtue may diminish the others-Hursthouse ✓ A vicious person cannot have virtues-Hursthouse ✓ Aims become good when they are united-Boethius ✓ Knowing a part of virtue involves the whole-Plato Ethics / Virtue Theory / External Goods / External Goods / Influential Ideas ✓ Do not desire external goods-Taylor,R ✓ Fine deeds need external resources-Aristotle ✓ Good men are NOT happy under torture-Aristotle ✓ The goods within the soul are best-Aristotle Ethics / Virtue Theory / External Goods / Friendship / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Philia' is much wider term than 'friendship'-Cooper,JM ✓ Aristotle doesn't crudely divide friendship-Cooper,JM ✓ Bad men are incapable of friendship-Plato ✓ Bad politics makes friendship difficult-Aristotle Ethics / Virtue Theory / External Goods / Health / Influential Ideas ✓ First health, then good looks, then wealth-Plato Ethics / Virtue Theory / External Goods / Wealth / Influential Ideas ✓ All men except philosophers fear poverty-Cicero ✓ Desire for great wealth leads to misery-Democritus ✓ Extremes of wealth corrupt character-Plato ✓ Great wealth makes virtue impossible-Plato Ethics / Virtue Theory / Virtue Theory / Basis Of Virtue / Influential Ideas ✓ All creatures have a right state & natural end-Shaftesbury ✓ Are acting well and virtue circular?-Aristotle ✓ Excellence is based on function-Aristotle ✓ Excellence is good function-Aristotle Whatever you are, be a good one. -abraham lincolnperson_outline Ethics / Virtue Theory / Virtue Theory / Nature Of Virtue / Influential Ideas ✓ A virtuous life can be marred, but not ruined-Hursthouse ✓ All goods can be misused except virtue-Aristotle ✓ All virtue is good, but not always praised-Chrysippus ✓ Choose a virtue in which to excel-Panaetius Ethics / Virtue Theory / Virtue Theory / Virtue Theory Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Boring people advocate virtue-Nietzsche ✓ Greeks don't explain virtue very clearly-Descartes ✓ Groups and their values dominate together-Marx&Engels ✓ How can priority be shown among virtues?-Hursthouse Ethics / Virtue Theory / Virtues / Compassion / Influential Ideas ✓ Be sympathetic, but not pitying-Epictetus ✓ Generosity and pity falsely imply superiority-Kant ✓ Joy and pity are complementary, not separable-Scruton ✓ Pity in the old is self interested-Aristotle Ethics / Virtue Theory / Virtues / Contemplation / Influential Ideas ✓ Contemplation, when possible, is our best good-Aristotle ✓ Contemplation increases happiness-Aristotle ✓ Contemplation is essential for happiness-Aristotle ✓ Contemplation is supreme pleasure and virtue-Aristotle Ethics / Virtue Theory / Virtues / Courage / Influential Ideas ✓ Bravery is not just lack of fear-Plato ✓ Civic courage is finer than military courage-Panaetius ✓ Courage is enduring honourable death-Aristotle ✓ Courage without virtue is madness-Hutcheson Ethics / Virtue Theory / Virtues / Honour / Influential Ideas ✓ Alexander etc actually despised honour!-Nietzsche ✓ Can dishonour laugh at greater dishonour?-Mencius ✓ Honour becomes dependent on approval-Aristotle ✓ Honour depends on the audience-Aristotle Ethics / Virtue Theory / Virtues / Justice / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Dikaiosune' is justice, fairness & integrity-MacIntyre ✓ Between friends there is no need for justice-Aristotle ✓ Criminals should want to be punished-Plato ✓ Distribute according to desert-Diogenes of Bab Ethics / Virtue Theory / Virtues / Temperance / Influential Ideas ✓ Absence of desire cannot be happiness-Plato ✓ Excessive laughter and tears are bad-Plato ✓ Moderation doesn't guarantee happiness-Aristotle ✓ Self indulgence prevents true friendship-Plato Ethics / Virtue Theory / Virtues / Virtues / Influential Ideas ✓ All is vanity, saith the Preacher ✓ Courage, compassion, insight and solitude-Nietzsche ✓ Essential virtues are superior-Aristotle ✓ Excess is OK in the best virtues-Aristotle Free Will / Free Will / Free Will Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Free' means 'unhindered',or it is meaningless-Hobbes ✓ 'Free will' makes humans more interesting-Nietzsche ✓ A priori we're free;experience shows necessity-Schopenhauer ✓ Brains initiate free acts unconsciously-Edelman&Tononi Free Will / Free Will / Nature Of Free Will / Influential Ideas ✓ A free act is determined by the thing alone-Spinoza ✓ Aristotle never discusses free will-Aristotle ✓ Awareness of awareness is powerful-Dennett ✓ Control of acts, or also thought and feeling?-Flanagan If at first you don’t succeed, try, try, try again. -william edward hicksonperson_outline Free Will / Free Will / Pro-Free Will / Influential Ideas ✓ A first beginning makes others possible-Kant ✓ Choice between reasons shows free will-Searle ✓ Rational decisions assume free will-Searle ✓ Responsible events must be caused by people-Chisholm Free Will / Free Will Theories / Compatibilism / Influential Ideas ✓ Agents, not wills, have liberty-Locke ✓ Freedom is following our preferences-Locke ✓ Liberty is being able to enact your will-Hume ✓ Past determiners of action are beyond control-Inwagen Free Will / Free Will Theories / Determinism / Influential Ideas ✓ A thought comes when it wants not when I want-Nietzsche ✓ Determinism needs an underlying system-Anscombe ✓ Determinism says identical world stay that way-Lewis ✓ Each act of will has a prior unwilled cause-Hobbes Free Will / Free Will Theories / Fate / Influential Ideas ✓ Cause is not sufficient, but only predisposing-Chrysippus ✓ Dogs follow carts with or without choice-Hippolytus ✓ There is some necessity, but we are also free-Epicurus ✓ There once was a man who said 'Damn!-Summers God / Attitudes To God / Atheism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Nature' could replace Spinoza's 'God'-Spinoza ✓ A manmade statue cannot be a god-Stilpo ✓ Atheism arises from desire to perceive God-Descartes ✓ Atheism can be an instinct rather than reason-Nietzsche God / Attitudes To God / Deism / Influential Ideas ✓ God has no role in heavenly movements-Epicurus ✓ The gods are indifferent to humans-Lucretius ✓ The gods may be non existent or indifferent-Plato ✓ There would be justice if gods cared for us-Thrasymachus God / Attitudes To God / Monotheism / Influential Ideas ✓ God is one, though known by many names-Chrysippus ✓ The gods can't all be equally beautiful-Cicero ✓ With monotheism came intolerance-Armstrong,K ✓ Zoroaster and Hebrews developed monotheism-Zoroaster God / Attitudes To God / Pantheism / Influential Ideas ✓ Earth, food, fire, sun are forms of Brahman ✓ God is matter, or is inseparable from it-Zeno of Citium ✓ God is not the substance of all things-Leibniz ✓ Our minds are part of God's intellect-Spinoza God / Divine Nature / Divine Contradictions / Influential Ideas ✓ Can the gods be sure they are eternal?-Cicero ✓ God can't make equality be inequality-Cudworth ✓ God cannot share our unwanted pain-Sorensen ✓ God couldn't be ignorant of strife and evil-Aristotle God / Divine Nature / Divine Morality / Divine Morality / Influential Ideas ✓ A nice God is particularly unbelievable-Nietzsche ✓ Atheists cling more strongly to morality-Nietzsche ✓ Maybe God has a moral sense like ours-Hutcheson ✓ Why God and evil; why good and no God?-Boethius God / Divine Nature / Divine Morality / Euthyphro Question / Influential Ideas ✓ And God saw that the light was good ✓ Assessment of God's will needs morality-Bentham ✓ Do the gods love piety, or create it?-Plato ✓ For Socrates morality binds gods and men-Vlastos You only live once, but if you do it right, once is enough. -mae westperson_outline God / Divine Nature / Divine Morality / God Decrees Morality / Influential Ideas ✓ Can God command that wickedness becomes good?-Cudworth ✓ God's authority precedes his commands-Cudworth ✓ God gives value to his own ideas-Descartes ✓ Law and right reason are identical with Zeus-Chrysippus God / Divine Nature / Divine Morality / God Is The Good / Influential Ideas ✓ Evil doers have not seen God-John ✓ God is above any source of goodness-Boethius ✓ God is good because he seeks human happiness-Hutcheson ✓ God is love-John God / Divine Nature / Divine Nature / Influential Ideas ✓ A God who answers prayers is absurd-Nietzsche ✓ Allah is lord of creation and a merciful judge-Mohammed ✓ Divine things are unchanging, unlike body-Plato ✓ God as power, not goodness or wisdom!-Nietzsche God / Divine Nature / Divine Perfections / Influential Ideas ✓ Deception would be a defect in a perfect God-Descartes ✓ Everything possibly perfect exists-Leibniz ✓ God's perfections cannot be contradictory-Leibniz ✓ God acts perfectly and rationally-Leibniz God / Divine Nature / God / Influential Ideas ✓ Anaxagoras said universe under divine control-Anaxagoras ✓ Beside me there is no God-Isaiah ✓ Brahma, the supreme god, arose spontaneously ✓ Everything comes from me, says Krishna God / Divine Nature / God Reflecting Humanity / Influential Ideas ✓ God is an augmentation of human virtues-Hume ✓ God is an empty idea filled by man-Feuerbach ✓ God is the essence of thought-Hegel ✓ God is usually just human qualities-Kant God / Divine Nature / God And Time / Influential Ideas ✓ Does God hear prayers outside time?-Augustine God / Proofs Of Evidence / Cosmological Proof / Influential Ideas ✓ A first cause doesn't follow from my ignorance-Descartes ✓ A good soul must originate all movement-Plato ✓ All motion must begin with a self moving thing-Plato ✓ Brahman is the Uncaused Cause God / Proofs Of Evidence / Miracles / Influential Ideas ✓ A 'miracle' must be contrary to all experience-Hume ✓ Even miracles belong to order-Leibniz ✓ Good miracles need to be surprising-Locke ✓ Keep miracles to a minimum-Leibniz God / Proofs Of Evidence / Religious Experience / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Holy' experience is no different from others-Taylor,AE God / Proofs Of Evidence / Teleological Proof / Influential Ideas ✓ A baffling artefact still shows design-Paley ✓ Allah made night for rest and day for light-Mohammed ✓ Creation of the world by luck is ridiculous-Cicero ✓ Even barbarians see design in machines-Cicero What's the point in being clever, if you can't prove it. -sherlock holmesperson_outline God / Proofs Of Evidence / Teleological Proof Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ A designer God should be like a human-Hume ✓ Analogy suggests God is like humans-Hume ✓ Can you infer a whole from a glimpsed part?-Hume ✓ Causes can't be greater than their effects-Hume God / Proving God / Fideism / Influential Ideas ✓ Faith is not wanting to know the truth-Nietzsche ✓ Faith is putting trust in our beliefs-Armstrong,K ✓ Faith is the peak of human subjectivity-Kierkegaard ✓ Fideist have problems with other fideists C Proofs of Reason-O'Grady God / Proving God / Moral Argument / Influential Ideas ✓ Absolute morality can only exist in one Mind-Rashdall ✓ Belief in justice requires a religion-Kant ✓ Conduct is only reasonable in a rational world-Rashdall ✓ Something supreme explains graded values-Aquinas God / Proving God / Ontological Proof / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Exists' sometimes is a predicate-Crane ✓ 'There is no God' leads to contradiction-Benardete,JA ✓ A supreme island might have to exist-Anselm ✓ All ideas must originate in some first idea-Descartes God / Proving God / Ontological Proof Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Existence' is a predicate of predicates-Scruton ✓ 'Exists' is actually a quantifier-Frege ✓ 'God' is a description, not a name-Russell ✓ 'God is' adds nothing to His concept-Kant God / Proving God / Pascal's Wager / Influential Ideas ✓ False belief in heaven is pleasant and safe-Peirce ✓ Hypothesising God is just more fun-Baudrillard ✓ Living piously sacrifices pleasure-Hacking ✓ Pascal assumes God is fifty percent likely-Hacking God / Proving God / Proof Of God / Influential Ideas ✓ God must exist to perceive things-Berkeley ✓ My mind couldn't function without God-Berkeley ✓ Theology is too big for humans-Hume ✓ There are just three proofs of God's existence-Kant Knowledge Aims / Certain Knowledge / Certainty / Influential Ideas ✓ Believe everything, or believe nothing?-Pollock&Cruz ✓ Certain knowledge is rooted in principles-Aristotle ✓ Certainty is only found in ideas-Locke ✓ Descartes accepts uncertainty about values-Roochnik Knowledge Aims / Certain Knowledge / Cogito / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Thought' includes feeling-Descartes ✓ 'I exist' is necessarily true when thought-Descartes ✓ Both God and I exist because thinkable-Feuerbach ✓ Cogito is not a priori but transcendental-Rey Knowledge Aims / Certain Knowledge / Cogito Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ 'I' may be like 'it' in 'it is raining'-Lowe ✓ 'I am thinking' presupposes my existence-Leibniz ✓ 'I think' contains heaps of unprovable ideas-Nietzsche ✓ Adding a 'thinker' is a grammatical custom-Nietzsche Knowledge Aims / Certain Knowledge / Error / Influential Ideas ✓ Error is my will exceeding the understanding-Descartes ✓ Must non existence exist to explain error?-Russell ✓ Reason doesn't actually make errors-Spinoza ✓ Surprise is a criterion of error-Russell It is never too late to be who you might have been. - george eliotperson_outline Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Belief / Aim Of Beliefs / Influential Ideas ✓ 'My belief is true' is a tautology-Peirce ✓ A belief is a commitment to truth-Searle ✓ Belief and fear are similar-Wittgenstein ✓ Beliefs are maps by which we steer-Ramsey Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Belief / Animal Beliefs / Influential Ideas ✓ Belief implies both error and learning-Scruton ✓ Belief needs concepts and understanding-Dretske ✓ Defeasible reasoning requires meta thought-Pollock ✓ Dogs have beliefs, and hence concepts-Lockwood Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Belief / Belief Holism / Influential Ideas ✓ Beliefs can't be counted-Fodor ✓ Beliefs need a network and a background-Searle ✓ Beliefs need background distinctions-Davidson ✓ Beliefs only function as part of a network-Searle Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Belief / Beliefs / Influential Ideas ✓ Belief content is their normal circumstances-Papineau ✓ Belief is a stronger feeling than imagination-Hume ✓ Belief is our central propositional attitude-Lyons ✓ Belief is the power of metarepresentation-Dretske Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Belief / Cause Of Beliefs / Influential Ideas ✓ Belief can't exist if it has no object-Plato ✓ Beliefs are encouraged but not chosen-Pryor ✓ Beliefs build by associating experiences-Hume ✓ Beliefs can't just be caused by the world-Lowe Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Belief / Elements Of Beliefs / Influential Ideas ✓ Belief and judgement may be the same thing-Monk ✓ Belief and truth are linked concepts-Davidson ✓ Belief is feeling attached to conjoined ideas-Hume ✓ Belief relates mind to several external things-Russell Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Belief / False Beliefs / Influential Ideas ✓ Beliefs must be about complex things-Russell Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Fallibilism / Influential Ideas ✓ All knowledge claims are provisional-Mautner ✓ Know P and allow not P? Contradiction?-Lewis ✓ Sense knowledge is less certain knowledge-Locke Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Knowing How / Influential Ideas ✓ Experience knows particulars, skill universals-Aristotle ✓ Knowing how can also be propositional-Crane ✓ Knowing that is a richer kind of knowing how-Gulick ✓ Knowing that precedes knowing how-Fodor Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Knowing How / The Knowing How/ Influential Ideas ✓ that division is simplistic-Maund Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Knowledge / Influential Ideas ✓ All understanding is of causation-Schopenhauer ✓ Aristotelian knowledge is explanatory-Aristotle ✓ Do nothing; know nothing; be empty-Chuang Tzu ✓ Episteme gives cause and explanation-Aristotle Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didn’t do than by the ones you did do. -mark twainperson_outline Knowledge Aims / Knowledge / Understanding / Influential Ideas ✓ Understand grasps concordance of ideas-Leibniz ✓ Understanding is a very vague concept-Salmon ✓ Understanding is knowing 'why'-Salmon ✓ Understanding is knowing explanations-Aristotle Knowledge Aims / Reality / Anti-Realism / Influential Ideas ✓ The best anti realism concerns laws-Bird ✓ Waves and particles are incompatible-O'Grady Knowledge Aims / Reality / Anti-Realism / The Realist/ Influential Ideas ✓ anti realist debate is hopeless-Williamson Knowledge Aims / Reality / Idealism / Influential Ideas ✓ All is one to reason, but plural to the senses-Aristotle ✓ Being is Thought-Hegel ✓ Berkeley misunderstood ideas and things-Russell ✓ Bodies are just appearances of the senses-Kant Knowledge Aims / Reality / Idealism / Mind/ Influential Ideas ✓ world separation gives bad idealism-Rowlands Knowledge Aims / Reality / Phenomenalism / Influential Ideas ✓ Are parts of reality 'indeterminate'?-Cardinal&Hayward&Jones ✓ Berkeley needs a phenomenalist view of self-Ayer ✓ Berkely did not deny material things-Berkeley ✓ Dreams are fine, if it is all coherent-Leibniz Knowledge Aims / Reality / Realism / Direct Realism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Acquaintance' is direct awareness of things-Russell ✓ Defeasibility makes direct realism false-Galloway ✓ Direct realism can't explain perceptual error-Dancy,J ✓ Existence isn't perceived, directly or not-Berkeley Knowledge Aims / Reality / Realism / Naïve Realism / Influential Ideas ✓ Air near red objects is not red-Robinson,H ✓ Physics shows naïve realism false-Russell ✓ Presumably a sixth sense would enlarge reality-PG ✓ Unperceived objects have all their properties-Dancy,J Knowledge Aims / Reality / Realism / Realism / Influential Ideas ✓ Are phenomena contrained or free floating?-Talbot ✓ Being is unknown, so realism is impossible-Nietzsche ✓ Cut nature accurately at the joints-Plato ✓ Doubting reality is not true dissatisfaction-Peirce Knowledge Aims / Reality / Realism / Representative Realism / Influential Ideas ✓ Four arguments support indirect realism-Dancy,J ✓ Hume says imagination produces objects-Hume ✓ Objects do not have colours-Russell ✓ Phenomena resemble reality abstractly-Russell Knowledge Aims / Reality / Reality / Influential Ideas ✓ Actual knowledge is of particulars-Aristotle ✓ Causal power is the mark of what is real-Kim ✓ Forms are Parmenidean, appearance Heraclitean-Plato ✓ How does commonsense realism see things AS?-Lockwood That which does not kill us makes us stronger. -friedrich nietzscheperson_outline Knowledge Aims / Reality / Solipsism / Influential Ideas ✓ Methodological Solipsism:one mind could do all-Kusch ✓ My mind may create all my experiences-Descartes ✓ Relaxed solipsists include past and future-Dancy,J ✓ Solipsism is not illogical-Russell Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Coherentism / Coherence As Justification / Influential Ideas ✓ A long series gives warrant to reasons-Klein ✓ Beliefs don't need reasons, to begin with-Harman ✓ Coherence is a set of best explanations-Harman ✓ Coherence is intuitive and primitive-Shapiro Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Coherentism / Coherentism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Coherence accepts non empirical external facts-Bonjour ✓ Coherence can't accommodate perception-Pollock&Cruz ✓ Coherence can't make falsehoods true-Cartwright,R ✓ Coherence is the a priori basis of coherentism-Williams,M Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Coherentism / Pro-Coherentism / Influential Ideas ✓ A rational account needs explanation of parts-Plato ✓ Bayesians get near certainty from probability-Sorensen ✓ Coherentism may solve induction & scepticism-Dancy,J ✓ Make sets of empirical propositions coherent-Dancy,J Knowledge Criteria / Justification / External Justification / Anti External Justification / Influential Ideas ✓ Externalism leads to scepticism-Bonjour ✓ Rational beliefs rest on known facts-Bonjour ✓ Scepticism makes externalism look false-Williams,M ✓ We can't act on external considerations-Pollock Knowledge Criteria / Justification / External Justification / Causal Justification / Influential Ideas ✓ Beliefs about the future aren't caused by it-Scruton ✓ Beliefs must be caused by the facts-Williams,M ✓ Cause and content of belief are different-Wittgenstein ✓ Causes and reasons are not the same-Searle Knowledge Criteria / Justification / External Justification / External Justification / Influential Ideas ✓ Animals have well formed beliefs-Goldman ✓ Epistemic 'entitlement' is external-Burge ✓ External theories: probabilism and reliabilism-Pollock&Cruz ✓ Externalism drops traditional justification-Kornblith Knowledge Criteria / Justification / External Justification / Naturalised Epistemology / Influential Ideas ✓ Drop justification; how is knowledge acquired?-Quine ✓ Giving up justification is giving up knowledge-Kim ✓ How do you naturalize normativity?-Kim ✓ Just study how theories relate to evidence-Quine Knowledge Criteria / Justification / External Justification / Reliabilism / Influential Ideas ✓ Arrogant character is irrelevant to knowledge-Feldman&Conee ✓ Believing nothing is very reliable-Field,H ✓ Does reliability have further requirements?-Bonjour ✓ Justification depends on reliable processes-Goldman Knowledge Criteria / Justification / External Justification / Social Justification / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Know' doesn't vary in its meaning-Unger ✓ Coherence makes justification a social act-Dancy,J ✓ Justifications end when we want them to-Nagel ✓ Knowledge is a group social status-Kusch Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Foundationalism / Basic Beliefs / Influential Ideas ✓ A priori justification can vary in degree-Bonjour ✓ A priori needs understanding, not experience-Bonjour ✓ All knowledge is based on acquaintance-Russell ✓ Basic judgements safely lack content-Williams,M You know you're in love when you can't fall asleep because reality is finally better than your dreams. -dr. Seussperson_outline Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Foundationalism / Foundationalism / Influential Ideas ✓ All certainties need foundations-Leibniz ✓ Externalism is a type of foundationalism-Bonjour ✓ Facts ultimately rest on senses or memory-Hume ✓ False beliefs should challenge the foundations-Dancy,J Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Foundationalism / Foundationalism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ A sufficient sign of truth is impossible-Kant ✓ Either all beliefs are basic, or none are-Pollock&Cruz ✓ Eliminating all error destroys some knowledge-Williams,M ✓ First principles are non existent or useless-Hume Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Foundationalism / Pro-Foundations / Influential Ideas ✓ A belief's regresses are finite and infinite?-Sosa ✓ Endless justification lacks ultimate support-Ginet ✓ Examples prove immediate justification-Pryor ✓ Foundations avoid the regress to scepticism-Bonjour Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Justification / Agrippa's Trilemma / Influential Ideas ✓ Basics are non belief, self justified, or none-Dancy,J ✓ Five responses available for the regress-Cleve ✓ Justification infinite, arbitrary or circular?-Agrippa ✓ Knowledge is unfounded and so impossible-Aristotle Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Justification / Contextual Justification / Influential Ideas ✓ 'S knows p' can have fixed content-Bach ✓ Are sentences baffling out of context?-Bach ✓ No standards are ever fixed for knowledge-Cohen,S ✓ Scepticism is true, in context-Cohen,S Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Justification / Epistemic Virtues / Influential Ideas ✓ Is process reliabilism virtue epistemology?-Kusch Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Justification / Gettier Problem / Influential Ideas ✓ Badly reasoned true belief is not knowledge-Russell ✓ Justification must be responsive to the truth-Nozick ✓ Lucky true belief is not knowledge-Russell ✓ True belief may not be knowledge-Russell Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Justification / Internal Justification / Influential Ideas ✓ A distinguishing mark is a rational account-Plato ✓ A rational account needs more than elements-Plato ✓ Beliefs don't need conscious justification-Goldman ✓ Can you eliminate alternatives to your belief?-Dretske Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Justification / Justification / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Warrant' turns a true belief into knowledge-Merricks ✓ Are people justified, or propositions?-Williams,M ✓ Audience and social role decide justification-Kusch ✓ Follow Bayes' Theorem and the Simple Rule-Pollock&Cruz Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Justification / Pragmatic Justification / Influential Ideas ✓ Belief is what matters to us, not knowledge-Nagel ✓ Beliefs should be fixed by external things-Peirce ✓ Justification is what is acceptable to oneself-Foley ✓ Knowledge and true opinion are equal as guides-Plato Knowledge Criteria / Justification / Justification / Testimony / Influential Ideas ✓ A rational source is a foundation-Kusch ✓ Are powerless people unreliable?-Kusch ✓ Belief in others is innate, not an inference-Putnam ✓ Don't trust witnesses who will benefit-Laplace Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving. -albert einsteinperson_outline Knowledge Criteria / Relativism / Culture / Influential Ideas ✓ Acceptability depends totally on circumstances ✓ Classification is not just social-Ellen ✓ Comparing moralities shows the problems-Nietzsche ✓ Cultural relativism itself is above culture-Quine Knowledge Criteria / Relativism / Knowledge As Convention / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Subjective knowledge' is based on fiction-Nietzsche ✓ An object feels hotter if you are cold-Berkeley ✓ Appearances can only be true for an observer-Aristotle ✓ Contrast makes good things appreciated-Heraclitus Knowledge Criteria / Relativism / Language Relativism / Influential Ideas ✓ Relativism involves two theories & translation-Quine Knowledge Criteria / Relativism / Relativism / Influential Ideas ✓ Animals see beauty in their own species-Epicharmus ✓ Animals vary in their perceptions-Pyrrho ✓ Beauty is a relative opinion & absolute idea-Plato ✓ Colour depends on eye adjustment-Epicurus Knowledge Criteria / Relativism / Relativism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Are predictions all equal to relativists?-Plato ✓ Ethics extends beyond its home culture-Williams,B ✓ God is the measure of all things-Plato ✓ Maybe even the gods disagree about forms-Plato Knowledge Criteria / Relativism / Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis / Influential Ideas ✓ Hopi focuses on events, not things-Whorf ✓ Language orders our experience-Whorf ✓ The Hopi do have time concepts and words!-Devlin ✓ We can separate culture from language-Cooper,DE Knowledge Criteria / Scepticism / Dreams / Influential Ideas ✓ A real world will explain dreams-Russell ✓ After a dream, am I Chuang Tzu or a butterfly?-Chuang Tzu ✓ Dreams are daft to wakers, but not vice versa-Hobbes ✓ Maybe we are dreaming right now-Plato Knowledge Criteria / Scepticism / Illusions / Influential Ideas ✓ Could experience remain, but nothing exist?-Berkeley ✓ Judgement decides which senses to trust-Descartes ✓ Judgement makes errors, not the senses-Gassendi ✓ Pain in missing limbs makes all pain uncertain-Descartes Knowledge Criteria / Scepticism / Interference / Influential Ideas ✓ Maybe God creates false maths and experiences-Descartes ✓ Imagine a devil giving me false experiences-Descartes Knowledge Criteria / Scepticism / Scepticism / Influential Ideas ✓ Belief is too individual to produce knowledge-Democritus ✓ Cartesian, Humean & Pyrrhonian sceptics-Fogelin ✓ Complete certainty is impossible for men-Xenophanes ✓ Cratylus was silent and waggled a finger-Cratylus Knowledge Criteria / Scepticism / Scepticism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Externalism and relevance attack sceptics-Bernecker&Dretske ✓ No good comes of excessive scepticism-Hume ✓ Once doubt ends, argument is pointless-Peirce ✓ One can never abandon ALL beliefs-Descartes Live fast, die young, and leave a good-looking corpse. -irene l. Luceperson_outline Knowledge Sources / A Priori Knowledge / A Priori Knowledge / Influential Ideas ✓ A priori arithmetic can be fallible-Jackson ✓ A priori ideas can be of experienced concepts-Audi ✓ A priori is a way of demonstrating truth-Baggini&Fosl ✓ A priori knowledge just needs the concepts-Kitcher Knowledge Sources / A Priori Knowledge / A Priori Knowledge / The A Priori/ Influential Ideas ✓ a posteriori gap is still alive-Kripke Knowledge Sources / A Priori Knowledge / A Priori From Convention / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Snow is or isn't white' isn't stipulated-Boghossian ✓ A priori commitment precedes meaning-Horwich ✓ A priori truth by definition can't get started-Boghossian ✓ All a priori truths are tautologies-Ayer Knowledge Sources / A Priori Knowledge / Denying The A Priori / Influential Ideas ✓ A priori belief may not be knowledge-Horwich ✓ A priori is indirectly holistically empirical-Devitt ✓ A priori is too obscure to explain anything-Devitt ✓ Are necessities only known a priori?-Devitt Knowledge Sources / A Priori Knowledge / Denying The A Priori / The A Priori/ Influential Ideas ✓ empirical boundary gets blurred-Quine Knowledge Sources / A Priori Knowledge / Innate Ideas / Influential Ideas ✓ A triangle's properties prove its existence-Descartes ✓ All inquiry requires previous knowledge-Epicurus ✓ All thoughts are innate-Leibniz ✓ Arithmetic is implicity innate-Leibniz Knowledge Sources / A Priori Knowledge / Pure A Priori / Influential Ideas ✓ A priori from stipulation presupposes a priori-Horwich ✓ A priori is derived from unproved generalities-Frege ✓ A priori knowledge is relations of universals-Russell ✓ A priority is mental, not propositional-Burge Knowledge Sources / A Priori Knowledge / Self-Evidence / Influential Ideas ✓ Can two self evident propositions contradict?-Grayling ✓ Particulars are more evident than principles-Russell ✓ Prefer the more to the less self evident-Russell ✓ Self evidence, logical or intuitive, will do-Frege Knowledge Sources / Direct Knowledge / Intuition / Influential Ideas ✓ Bolzano wanted proof, not Kantian intuition-Bolzano ✓ Eliminative or reductive about memory?-Dancy,J ✓ Geometrical intuitions turned out wrong-Boghossian ✓ How can we remember what is false?-Cicero Knowledge Sources / Empiricism / Associationism / Association By Cause / Influential Ideas ✓ Possessions best remind us of the dead-Hume Knowledge Sources / Empiricism / Associationism / Associationism / Influential Ideas ✓ A mind is an all purpose learning device-Pinker ✓ Associationism can't explain truth-Fodor ✓ Associationism explains intentionality-Robinson,H ✓ Associations are natural or conventional-Locke When the going gets tough, the tough get going. -proverbperson_outline Knowledge Sources / Empiricism / Associationism / Contiguity / Influential Ideas ✓ Home becomes more vivid as we approach it-Hume ✓ We connect pain with where it happened-Locke Knowledge Sources / Empiricism / Associationism / Resemblance / Influential Ideas ✓ Countings needs correspondence and relation-Dedekind ✓ Everything resembles everything else a bit-Plato ✓ Hume needs degrees of resemblance-Shoemaker ✓ Pictures conjure up absent friends-Hume Knowledge Sources / Empiricism / Empiricism / Empiricism / Influential Ideas ✓ Aim to match experience as simply as possible-Quine ✓ All ideas are copied from impressions-Hume ✓ All our ideas come from experience-Locke ✓ Analytic & synthetic propositions, or verbiage-Ayer Knowledge Sources / Empiricism / Empiricism / Empiricism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Breaking all ideas into experiences is tough-Dancy,J ✓ Concepts contain more than raw experiences-Fodor ✓ Empiricism and science are incompatible-MacIntyre ✓ Extreme empiricists can't explain things-Swoyer Knowledge Sources / Empiricism / Empiricism / Empiricism Critique / Empiricism Can't Explain Necessary Maths/ Influential Ideas ✓ logic-Katz Knowledge Sources / Empiricism / Empiricism / Empiricism Critique / Empiricism Needs A Scheme/ Influential Ideas ✓ content distinction-Davidson Knowledge Sources / Empiricism / Empiricism / Pro-Empiricism / Influential Ideas ✓ All knowledge rests on observation-Comte ✓ Clear concepts need good experience-Mill ✓ Creativity is just the joining of ideas-Hume ✓ Geometry is sensed, so isn't pure ideas-Berkeley Knowledge Sources / Perception / Adverbial Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ Adverbialism is direct, with no sense data-Maund ✓ Complex perceptions can't be adverbial-Lowe ✓ Minds must apprehend sense data adverbially-Bonjour ✓ Mountains are adverbial, but have properties-Maund Knowledge Sources / Perception / Causal Perception / Influential Ideas ✓ A causal theorist can be a direct realist-Lowe ✓ Blindsight undermines the causal theory-Lowe ✓ Causal perception refers to unobservables-Ayer ✓ Perception is for belief, not experience-Armstrong Knowledge Sources / Perception / Inference In Perception / Influential Ideas ✓ Broad rejects inference in representation-Broad ✓ Can't perception be its own justification?-Fodor ✓ Can a newly sighted man distinguish shapes?-Locke ✓ Can non conceptual experience be rational?-Maund Knowledge Sources / Perception / Interpretation / Influential Ideas ✓ All perception is intellectual-Schopenhauer ✓ Classify, then name, locate, associate, feel-Carter,R ✓ For Kant cognition and sensing are inseparable-Kant ✓ How can we judge if senses match reality?-Sext Empiricus Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far. -theodore rooseveltperson_outline Knowledge Sources / Perception / Perception / Influential Ideas ✓ Adverbialism sees sense contents as modes-Robinson,H ✓ Are properties of experiences, not objects-Crane ✓ Can felt shapes be known by looking?-Robinson,H ✓ Choc taste is finer grained than sweetness-Polger Knowledge Sources / Perception / Perception / Perception Gives Pleasure/ Influential Ideas ✓ pain, hence appetite-Aristotle Knowledge Sources / Perception / Primary/Secondary / Primary/Secondary / Influential Ideas ✓ Maths covers primary qualities, not secondary-Cardinal&Hayward&Jones ✓ Primary qualities are essential to objects-Cardinal&Hayward&Jones ✓ Spectrum colour bands arise from biology-Sorensen Knowledge Sources / Perception / Primary/Secondary / Primary/Secondary / Essentialists Like Primary/ Influential Ideas ✓ secondary-Ellis Knowledge Sources / Perception / Primary/Secondary / Primary/Secondary / Radiant/ Influential Ideas ✓ diffused colour isn't surface property-Heil Knowledge Sources / Perception / Primary/Secondary / Primary/Secondary / Science Needs A Primary/ Influential Ideas ✓ secondary division-Nagel Knowledge Sources / Perception / Primary/Secondary / Primary/Secondary Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ A theory is bad if it says tomatoes aren't red-Heil ✓ Apparent size varies with distance away-Berkeley ✓ Are secondary qualities blurred primaries?-Armstrong ✓ Both primary and secondary are apparent-Leibniz Knowledge Sources / Perception / Primary/Secondary / Primary/Secondary Critique / Subjective/Objective And Prim/ Influential Ideas ✓ sec are linked-Svendsen Knowledge Sources / Perception / Representation / Influential Ideas ✓ Berkeley got idealism from fear of scepticism-Berkeley ✓ Do perceptions inevitably cause beliefs?-Audi ✓ How do we get 'direct' information of reality?-Lowe ✓ Moderate empiricists like representation-Robinson,H Knowledge Sources / Perception / Sense Data / Nature Of Sense-Data / Influential Ideas ✓ Are sense data in objects, or like them?-Robinson,H ✓ For Russell, we are aware of our own brain-Russell ✓ Loss of mind would not destroy sense data-Russell ✓ Maybe sense data are public aspects of things-Lacey Knowledge Sources / Perception / Sense Data / Sense-Data Problems / Influential Ideas ✓ Are hallucination and perception separate?-Lowe ✓ Are sense data subjective?-Russell ✓ Are we 'acquainted' with sense data?-Williams,M ✓ Can non propositional sense data be knowledge?-Williams,M Pain is inevitable. Suffering is optional. - m. Kathleen caseyperson_outline Knowledge Sources / Perception / Sense Data / Sense-Data Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Sense data' is a concept in early empiricism-Mautner ✓ Appearances can be separated from objects-Hobbes ✓ Data plus understanding is perception-Schopenhauer ✓ Russell abandoned sense data in-Russell Knowledge Sources / Perception / Sense Data / Unperceived Sense-Data / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Sensibilia' are unexperienced sense data-Russell ✓ Sense data must be given to exist-Russell ✓ We don't know if sense data exist unobserved-Russell Knowledge Sources / Rationalism / Proof / Influential Ideas ✓ Are all truths provable?-Leibniz ✓ Proof goes from agreement to the non evident-Sext Empiricus ✓ Proof reveals the interdependence of truths-Frege ✓ Things that need proof have little value-Nietzsche Knowledge Sources / Rationalism / Rationalism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Circumspect rationalism' says intellect rules-Fogelin ✓ 'Substance' is essential to rationalism-Cottingham ✓ A soul without understanding is ugly-Plato ✓ Astronomy is known by experience or reason-Leibniz Language / Interpretation / Charity / Influential Ideas ✓ Assume people correctly infer further beliefs-Kim ✓ Assume people don't utter nonsense-Kim ✓ Chairty involves logic and true beliefs-Davidson ✓ Charity is inappropriate in some areas-Putnam Language / Interpretation / Indeterminacy / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Gavagai' and 'rabbit' may not be coextensive-Quine ✓ A language could be simulated with no ontology-Quine ✓ Correct translations explain behaviour-Putnam ✓ Final translation of 'gavagai' is impossible-Quine Language / Language / Ambiguity / Influential Ideas ✓ Ambiguity builds on logical forms-Harman Language / Language / Language / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Universal grammar' explains nothing-Searle ✓ A language is a form of life-Wittgenstein ✓ Can we read reality from our language?-Heil ✓ Contextual variation isn't determination-Bach Language / Language / Metaphor / Influential Ideas ✓ Don't use metaphors in definition or argument-Aristotle ✓ Metaphors have only their literal meaning-Davidson ✓ Most words can be metaphors-Yablo ✓ Seeing falsehood leads to metaphor-Davidson Language / Language / Predicates / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Distributive' predicates; individuals = group-Linnebo ✓ Logic predicates vastly simplify language-Swoyer ✓ Nominalist, platonist or Montague predicates-Orenstein ✓ Predicates are said of many things-Aristotle Language / Language / Private Language / Influential Ideas ✓ A logically perfect language has private names-Russell ✓ An inner process needs outward criteria-Wittgenstein ✓ Are communities sure they are rule following?-Grayling ✓ Foundations can't be totally private-Scruton Smooth seas do not make skillful sailors. - african proverbperson_outline Language / Language / Rhetoric / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Phaedrus' pioneers philosophical rhetoric-Lawson Tancred ✓ End seriousness or laughter with its opposite-Gorgias ✓ Good rhetoric requires truth-Plato ✓ Often only socialising persuades-Kusch Language / Meaning / Denial Of Meanings / Influential Ideas ✓ Focus on analytic and synonymous, not meaning-Quine ✓ Lovers of meaning confuse it with reference-Orenstein ✓ Meaning is an empty concept-Kripke ✓ Meaning is either significance or synonymy-Quine Language / Meaning / Meaning / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Sense' explains two key phenomena-Frege ✓ 'Sense' was to solve three problems-Frege ✓ Broad semantics relies on truth and denotation-Fodor ✓ Concept don't involve beliefs or inferences-Fodor Language / Meaning / Meaning Holism / Influential Ideas ✓ All the inferences will fix the meanings-Fodor&Lepore ✓ Are meaning and belief tied together?-Rorty ✓ Background isn't needed to learn a concept-Fodor ✓ Composition with non existents?-Read Language / Meaning / Meaning Holism / Holism Blurs The Language/ Influential Ideas ✓ rules boundary-Dummett Language / Meaning / Meaning As Mental / Influential Ideas ✓ All experience is meaning-Derrida ✓ How to picture 'cat NOT on mat'?-Lowe ✓ Meanings are abstract, not mental-Frege ✓ Names stand for ideas-Berkeley Language / Meaning / Meaning As Speaker's Intention / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Deferential' usage conforms to others-Evans ✓ Linguistic intentions are like non linguistic-Grice ✓ Meaning concerns primary intentions-Grice ✓ Meaning needs spotting speakers' intentions-Grice Language / Meaning / Meaning As Truth-Conditions / Influential Ideas ✓ All necessary truths match the same worlds-Fine,K ✓ Deflationary truth just needs syntax-Miller,A ✓ Possible worlds best for truth conditions-Lycan ✓ Possible worlds explain sentence entailment-Lycan Language / Meaning / Meaning As Truth-Conditions / Renate/ Influential Ideas ✓ cordate a truth conditions problem-Lycan Language / Meaning / Meaning As Use / Influential Ideas ✓ Conceptual role semantics isn't very plausible-Rey ✓ Elocution sentences differ in use & meaning-Cooper,DE ✓ Meaning contains all possible uses-Nagel ✓ Meaning is use in concept calculation-Harman Language / Meaning / Meaning As Use / True/ Influential Ideas ✓ false is only grasped through use-Dummett Believe you can and you’re halfway there. -theodore rooseveltperson_outline Language / Meaning / Meaning As Verification / Influential Ideas ✓ Acquaintances make all understood propositions-Russell ✓ Contradiction, but also unjustifed assertion-Brouwer ✓ Factual propositions imply experiences-Ayer ✓ Foundationalism mirrors logical positivism-Dancy,J Language / Meaning / Meaning By Role / Influential Ideas ✓ Conceptual role semantics isn't just internal-Harman ✓ Conceptual role semantics seeks context-Boghossian ✓ Role in inference fixes meanings?-Fodor ✓ The content of thought is relational-Harman Language / Meaning / Meaning Through Sentences / Influential Ideas ✓ Proposition sense is constructed from words-Frege ✓ Sentences always mean, but words don't-Zeno of Citium ✓ Sentences first, because they say something-Dummett ✓ Words for foundations, sentences for coherence-Williams,M Language / Meaning / Synonymy / Influential Ideas ✓ Meaning can be similar, not the same-Harman ✓ Meaning implies possibly synonymy-Boghossian ✓ Same content doesn't give same reference-Fodor ✓ Same sense, if possible, is equivalence-Kaplan Language / Propositions / Analytic/Synthetic / Influential Ideas ✓ Epistemological and metaphysical analyticity-Boghossian ✓ False predicates are not contradictions-Miller,A ✓ Many conceptual truths are not analytic-Hale&Wright ✓ Particular terms produce the analyticity-Fine,K Language / Propositions / Analytic/Synthetic / Analysis Requires Analytic/ Influential Ideas ✓ synthetic division-Fodor Language / Propositions / Analytic/Synthetic / Meaning/Extras, Essence/ Influential Ideas ✓ accident vague!-Quine Language / Propositions / Analytic/Synthetic / The Analytic/ Influential Ideas ✓ synthetic distinction is useless-Harman Language / Propositions / Propositions / Influential Ideas ✓ A proposition is a saturated property-Swoyer ✓ A proposition is a set of possible worlds-Lewis ✓ A proposition is a set of possible worlds-Perry ✓ A proposition is a world set where it is true-Lewis Language / Propositions / Propositions Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Can abstract propositions have causal powers?-Lowe ✓ Can we interact with abstract propositions?-Heil ✓ How can propositions have truth values?-Heil ✓ Propositions need a link to sentences-Davidson Language / Propositions / Propositions Critique / Skip Propositions; Just Sentences/ Influential Ideas ✓ equivalence-Quine In the middle of every difficulty lies opportunity. -albert einsteinperson_outline Language / Reference / Causal Reference / Influential Ideas ✓ A baptism of nothing might launch a name-Sainsbury ✓ A referent must cause a speaker's information-Evans ✓ Ancient reference is a matter of tradition-Dummett ✓ Category is by appearance not essence-Locke Language / Reference / De Re/De Dicto / Influential Ideas ✓ 'De re' of things, 'de dicto' of propositions-Melia ✓ Reference can be to two properties of a thing-Fodor ✓ Sense can't fix reference, or vice versa-Fodor Language / Reference / De Re/De Dicto / De Dicto/ Influential Ideas ✓ De re originates with Abelard-Abelard Language / Reference / Descriptions / Descriptions / Influential Ideas ✓ Definite description won't intrinsically refer-Bach ✓ Description can't be sufficient for reference-Evans ✓ Descriptions are rigid in subject position-Sainsbury ✓ Descriptions change as referents change-Bach Language / Reference / Descriptions / Descriptions / Attributive/ Influential Ideas ✓ referential definite descriptions-Donnellan Language / Reference / Descriptions / Theory Of Definite Descriptions / Influential Ideas ✓ 'The x if F' only presumes that x exists-Donnellan ✓ A term can't refer just by its meaning-Cooper,DE ✓ Definite descriptions aren't proper names-Russell ✓ Definite descriptions can fail to refer-Sainsbury Language / Reference / Failure Of Reference / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Nobody' is a quantifier, not a singular term-Russell ✓ All thought objects have some being-Meinong ✓ Know this man, but not that he is Orestes-Eucleides ✓ Negations don't exist when we negate them-Aristotle Language / Reference / Indexicals / Influential Ideas ✓ We can't just replace 'I'-Perry ✓ Indexicals depend on utterance circumstances-Mautner Language / Reference / Names / Logically Proper Names / Influential Ideas ✓ Logically proper names introduce objects-Russell ✓ If sense fixes an object, it’s a proper name-Frege ✓ Individuals are just those with names-Simons Language / Reference / Names / Names / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Etna' can't refer to the whole of actual Etna-Frege ✓ 'Paderewski' has two names in mentalese-Fodor ✓ A 'name' is whatever refers ✓ Existence claims don't require naming-Quine Language / Reference / Reference / Reference / Influential Ideas ✓ A reference is what makes beliefs true-Peacocke ✓ Alluding or describing is not referring-Bach ✓ Alluding to someone is not reference-Bach ✓ Distinguish senses by their causal powers-Fodor You know you're in love when you can't fall asleep because reality is finally better than your dreams. -dr. Seussperson_outline Language / Reference / Reference / Reference / Referential/ Influential Ideas ✓ attributive:semantic or pragmatic?-Bach Language / Reference / Reference / Reference By Context / Influential Ideas ✓ Context is just something speakers exploit-Bach ✓ Expressions refer, but relative to context-Bach ✓ Reference is mainly a social phenomenon-Strawson,P ✓ Society and reality help fix reference-Putnam Language / Reference / Reference / Reference By Semantics / Influential Ideas ✓ For Frege sense determines reference-Katz ✓ Names denote if objects satisfy-Tarski ✓ Refer by names, indexicals or descriptions-Adams,RM ✓ Referring is not the same as denoting-Donnellan Language / Reference / Reference / Reference By Speaker / Influential Ideas ✓ 'That duck' may not be the obvious duck-Bach ✓ Anaphora reveals speakers's intentions-Bach ✓ Even quantifiers can be referential-Sainsbury ✓ Same meaning doesn't imply same thought-Frege Language / Reference / Reference / Singular Terms / Influential Ideas ✓ A 'singulariser' usefully converts plurals-Cartwright,H ✓ Adjectives contribute to noun phrases-Hofweber ✓ Frege attributes reference very broadly-Frege ✓ Genuine singular terms can't be eliminated-Hale Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Adjectival Numbers / Influential Ideas ✓ Adjectival numbers may just be quantifiers-Hofweber ✓ Are numbers based on objects or properties?-Brown,JR ✓ Numbers are a very general property of objects-Mill ✓ Numbers are like quantifiers-Frege Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Constructivism / Conceptualism / Influential Ideas ✓ Conceptualism isn't a maths ontology-Shapiro ✓ Conceptualism says universals are mind made-Quine ✓ Numbers in concepts, not in things-Frege Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Constructivism / Constructivism / Influential Ideas ✓ Can ideal constructors destroy objects?-Shapiro ✓ Can possible operations be blocked?-Shapiro ✓ Constructivism rejects too much mathematics-Friend ✓ Convention, yes! Arbitrary, no!-Poincaré Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Constructivism / Intuitionism / Influential Ideas ✓ Bivalence OK, but not excluded middle-Friend ✓ Maths isn't proofs if there are unprovables-Scruton ✓ Maths needs more than intuitionist ontology-Quine ✓ Only contradiction stops maths object existing-Waterfield Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Constructivism / Psychologism / Influential Ideas ✓ Fluctuations of mind irrelevant to maths-Frege Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Empirical Arithmetic / Influential Ideas ✓ =+ presupposes collections of objects-Mill ✓ A priori knowledge merely assists experience-Hume ✓ Abstaction won't count repetitions-Geach ✓ Abstract numbers do no exist-Mill Nothing is certain except for death and taxes. -christopher bullockperson_outline Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Finitism / Influential Ideas ✓ Bounded quantification is originally finitary-George&Velleman ✓ Finite proofs, to secure infinity-Hilbert ✓ Much infinite maths is finitely justified-George&Velleman Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Formalism / Influential Ideas ✓ Application makes arithmetic a science-Frege ✓ Does some maths depend on notation?-Brown,JR ✓ Formalism denies all meaning to notations-Quine ✓ Formalism excludes creative maths-Musgrave Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Intuition Of Mathematics / Influential Ideas ✓ Geometry needs intuition-Frege ✓ Proving the obvious blocks intuition-Bolzano ✓ Relevance? Impossibility? Exactness?-Kitcher ✓ Intuition can be a hindrance to geometry-Shapiro Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Logicism / Early Logicism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Principia' needs more precise syntax-Gödel ✓ += has the necessity of logic-Wittgenstein ✓ Arithmetic is analytic a priori logic-Frege ✓ Arithmetic is analytic-Frege Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Logicism / Logicism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Princ Mathematica' exceeds logic in domains-Bernays ✓ Can logic show Caesar isn't a number?-Frege ✓ Can numbers be both logic and objects?-Hodes ✓ Can there be truth without reference?-Kitcher Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Logicism / Neo-Logicism / Influential Ideas ✓ Hume's Principle, nd order logic logicism!-Hale&Wright ✓ Hume's Principle implies Peano Postulates-George&Velleman ✓ Hume's Principle is a definition, not a truth-Fine,K ✓ Hume's Principle isn't adequate and defining-Fine,K Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Logicism / Neo-Logicism / Necessity/ Influential Ideas ✓ priori shows maths is logic-Yablo Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Logicism / Type Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ Chihara's system is a variant of type theory-Chihara ✓ Each type level is finite-George&Velleman ✓ Frege's logic is hierarchical-Frege ✓ Numbers are classes of classes, hence fictions-Russell Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Mathematical Platonism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Abstract entities' is a label, not a solution-George&Velleman ✓ Abstracta exist, as references for terms-Williamson ✓ Abstraction enters before mathematics-Boolos ✓ Arithemtic is about inference, not entities-Hofweber Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Structuralism / Nominalist Structuralism / Influential Ideas ✓ Can structuralism combine with nominalism?-Burgess&Rosen ✓ Focus on relations and functions, not objects-Friend ✓ Formalist Structuralism has minimal commitment-Reck&Price ✓ Mathematics studies possible structures-Hellman Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Structuralism / Platonist Structuralism / Influential Ideas ✓ A structure is one over many {systems}-Shapiro ✓ Abstraction is pattern spotting-Friend ✓ Maths can't all be mental or physical-Resnik ✓ Maths proof and truth are based on patterns-Resnik Be yourself, everyone else is taken. -oscar wildeperson_outline Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Structuralism / Structuralism / Influential Ideas ✓ '' defines the role of 'third'-Benacerraf ✓ 'Particular' and 'universal' structures-Reck&Price ✓ Abstraction to positions, or to objects?-Fine,K ✓ All versions of structuralism are equivalent-Shapiro Mathematics / Basis Of Mathematics / Structuralism / Structuralism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Algebra studies relations, not relation theory-Burgess ✓ Circular definition of sets and structures?-Burgess ✓ Counting, not structure, defines-Dummett ✓ Does structure start with or ?-Dummett Mathematics / Logic Of Mathematics / Axioms Of Geometry / Influential Ideas ✓ A straight line is the shortest one-Archimedes ✓ Axioms are assumptions to prove-Aristotle ✓ Construction in Euclid, existence in Hilbert-Bernays ✓ Euclid's fifth postulate defines parallels-Euclid Mathematics / Logic Of Mathematics / Baby Arithmetic / Influential Ideas ✓ Baby Arithmetic is complete but dumb-Smith,P ✓ Baby arithmetic just does + and x-Smith,P Mathematics / Logic Of Mathematics / Greek Arithmetic / Influential Ideas ✓ Arithmetic has definitions and two axioms-Mill ✓ Quantities are discrete or continuous-Aristotle ✓ If equals are taken from equals, equals remain-Euclid Mathematics / Logic Of Mathematics / Incompleteness Of Arithmetic / Influential Ideas ✓ Arithmetic is incomplete OR inconsistent-Rey ✓ Arithmetic must always be incomplete-Gödel ✓ Assumptions beyond arithmetic are needed-Gödel ✓ Axioms and rules won't deliver arithmetic-Gödel Mathematics / Logic Of Mathematics / Logic Of Mathematics / Influential Ideas ✓ Axioms: self evident, stipulated or fallible?-Brown,JR ✓ Build on equality, addition and successors-Mill ✓ Conclusions may be clearer than the axioms-Russell ✓ Define 'successor' by an object lacking G-Smith,P Mathematics / Logic Of Mathematics / Mathematical Induction / Influential Ideas ✓ Arithmetic needs nd order for induction-Smith,P ✓ Induction definition allows induction proof-Zalabardo Mathematics / Logic Of Mathematics / Peano Arithmetic / Influential Ideas ✓ Define , successor and universal predicate-Peano ✓ Natural numbers: start, successor, induction-Shapiro ✓ Numbers can be defined just using 'class'-Russell Mathematics / Logic Of Mathematics / Peano Arithmetic 2nd-Order / Influential Ideas ✓ Arithmetic has a second order model-Read ✓ nd order arithmetic can ensure categoricity-Read ✓ Peano Arithmetic PA has three axioms-Reck&Price ✓ Plural language gives one induction axiom-Hossack Mathematics / Logic Of Mathematics / Robinson Arithmetic / Influential Ideas ✓ Q has basics, quantifiers, and st order logic-Smith,P ✓ Robinson Arithmetic is not complete-Smith,P That’s one small step for a man, a giant leap for mankind. -neil armstrongperson_outline Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Application Of Mathematics / Influential Ideas ✓ Application is counting and measurement-Benacerraf ✓ Applied maths needs possibility, not truth-Field,H ✓ Can I know numbers but can't count things?-Scruton ✓ Maths is applicable because it is general-George&Velleman Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Geometry / Influential Ideas ✓ A priori spatial perception is Euclidean-Kant ✓ All geometries are equally true-Poincaré ✓ Analytic geometry can be logicist-Quine ✓ Can circles be understood but not recognised?-Plato Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Axioms For Numbers / Influential Ideas ✓ A set theory approach is unified and explicit-Reck&Price ✓ Sets instantiate the numeric properties-Hossack ✓ The axioms of arithmetic are revisable-Putnam ✓ Is part of , or not?-Benacerraf Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Fregean Numbers / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Extension of a concept' is indeterminate-Cantor ✓ 'Many' won't behave like 'four'-Rumfitt ✓ 'Ten' may not attach to a concept-Rumfitt ✓ A motive for number objects won't justify it-Hale&Wright Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Numbers / Influential Ideas ✓ A natural number is a property of sets-Maddy ✓ Accept complexes iff geometrical?-Kitcher ✓ Are numbers substances?-Aristotle ✓ Denial of continuity gives us number-Aristotle Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Ordinal Numbers / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Ordinal' is a set theoretic concept-Horsten ✓ Cantor introduced the 'ordinals'-Cantor ✓ Cantor took the ordinal numbers to be primary-Tait ✓ Define ordinals by transitive sets-Badiou Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Real Numbers / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Analysis' is the theory of the real numbers-Reck&Price ✓ A cut creates an irrational number-Dedekind ✓ Cantor proved you can't list the reals-Cantor ✓ Line parts must be continuous-Aristotle Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Types Of Number / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Rational' numbers are all the fractions-Friend ✓ A largest prime is a contradiction-Euclid ✓ Cardinals and reals do quite different jobs-Frege ✓ Cardinals are totals with no order-Friend Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Unit / Influential Ideas ✓ A number is a multitude of units-Dummett ✓ Abstraction won't find numbers in objects-Frege ✓ Multiplicity is just one, one, one-Husserl ✓ Multiplicity requires units-Leibniz Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Von Neumann Numbers / Influential Ideas ✓ Von Neumann numbers are helpful but wrong-Read Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Numbers / Zermelo Numbers / Influential Ideas ✓ The Peano Postulates can be proven in ZFC-George&Velleman ✓ Is a member of , or not?-Shapiro Be kind, for everyone you meet is fighting a hard battle. -platoperson_outline Mathematics / Nature Of Mathematics / Proof / Influential Ideas ✓ No explanation in computer proofs-Horsten ✓ The four colour map proof used computers-Brown,JR ✓ There are endless ways to prove something-Brown,JR ✓ Trade off of rules and axioms-Beall&Restall Metaethics / Basis Of Ethics / Is/Ought / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Treachery' unites facts and values-Williams,B ✓ All seems good to God, but not to us-Heraclitus ✓ Beauty might be a key fact about a patch-Ross ✓ Experience cannot reveal moral laws-Kant Metaethics / Basis Of Ethics / Moral Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ All moral theories are meta ethical-Ayer ✓ Are thin or thick concepts conceptually prior?-Jackson ✓ Duty to act rightly is taken for granted-Aristotle ✓ Ethics is the science of flourishing-Flanagan Metaethics / Basis Of Ethics / Morality / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Person' is too vague for a moral basis-Williams,B ✓ Ethical facts are seen as queer facts-Ayer ✓ Ethics cannot be put into words-Wittgenstein ✓ Ethics is the practice of freedom-Foucault Metaethics / Basis Of Ethics / Morality As Convention / Influential Ideas ✓ A river can't mark the limits of justice-Pascal ✓ Aristotle's virtue is convention or intellect-Taylor,R ✓ Betrayal, sacrilege & murder can be right ✓ Bravery is conventional, not natural-Plutarch Metaethics / Basis Of Ethics / Morality Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Morality is just extra moral interpretations-Nietzsche ✓ No moral facts, so no moral knowledge-Mackie ✓ People prefer appearances to excellence-Confucius ✓ The weak pull down the strong with morality-Nietzsche Metaethics / Basis Of Ethics / Responsibility / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Wantons' lack second order volitions-Frankfurt ✓ Are we responsible for our bad desires?-Chisholm ✓ Caused and causeless acts lack responsibility-Chisholm ✓ Cyrenaics never blame wrong doers-Aristippus young Metaethics / Basis Of Ethics / Right / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Right' and 'good' differ in meaning-Ross ✓ 'Right' is what produces good-Moore,GE ✓ 'Right' means 'useful'-Moore,GE ✓ 'Right' used to be conventional acceptance Moral Motives-Ross Metaethics / Basis Of Ethics / Superman / Influential Ideas ✓ The superman is just a monstrous oddity-MacIntyre Metaethics / Consequentialism / Benefit / Influential Ideas ✓ Actions may benefit but also corrupt-Glover Metaethics / Consequentialism / Chaotic Outcome / Influential Ideas ✓ Both intentions AND consequences are unknown-Nietzsche The ballot is stronger than the bullet. -lincolnperson_outline Metaethics / Consequentialism / Consequentialism / Influential Ideas ✓ A character is judged by its feelings-Shaftesbury ✓ Achievement does not decide if a will is good-Kant ✓ Act and consequences are not separate-Crisp,R ✓ Actions are judged by the doer's character-Plato Metaethics / Consequentialism / Moral Luck / Influential Ideas ✓ Moral luck has four different elements-Nagel ✓ Moral luck should influence judgement a little-Plato ✓ We condemn acts with bad outcome more-Smith,A Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Altruism / Influential Ideas ✓ Altruism is based on egoism of the weak-Nietzsche ✓ Altruistic people are closer to others-Schopenhauer ✓ Are your interests mine, or reasons for me?-Scruton ✓ Friendship is an extension of self love-Aristotle Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Form Of The Good / Influential Ideas ✓ All activity aims at the good-Plato ✓ All value and advantage derives from goodness-Plato ✓ All values and good conduct derive from Good-Plato ✓ Bad is destruction, good is preservation-Plato Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Good / Influential Ideas ✓ A person's life could be a work of art-Foucault ✓ Can natural qualities define 'good'?-Moore,GE ✓ For Aristotle 'telos' is the good-Achtenberg ✓ For Cyrenaics there is no moral end-Aristippus elder Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Goodness / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Good' was conceived by aristocrats-Nietzsche ✓ Action aims at good, as thought aims at truth-Aquinas ✓ Akratic actions don't aim at a good-Burnyeat ✓ All good is relative to a desiring will-Schopenhauer Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Happiness / Eudaimonia / Influential Ideas ✓ Aim at fulfilment, not happiness-Critolaus ✓ Aristotle noting eudaimonia or recommending?-McDowell ✓ Eudaimonia includes behaving and faring well-MacIntyre ✓ Eudaimonia is having a good demon-Taylor,R Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Happiness / Routes To Happiness / Is Virtue Necessary/ Influential Ideas ✓ sufficient for eudaimonia?-Hursthouse Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Happiness / Value Of Happiness / Good/Evil Has Become Happiness/ Influential Ideas ✓ misfortune-Baudrillard Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Pleasure / Dangers Of Pleasure / Influential Ideas ✓ Fool's submit to insatiable desire-Plato ✓ Pleasure is bad if it hinders action-Spinoza ✓ Pleasure is insatiable, and leads to pain ✓ Pleasure is the toughest opponent-Heraclitus Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Pleasure / Nature Of Pleasure / Influential Ideas ✓ Avoid pain, and confusion of the soul-Epicurus ✓ People want to sustain their desires-Frankfurt ✓ Pleasure and pain can be false-Plato ✓ Pleasure is a perception of goodness-Aristotle Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far. -theodore rooseveltperson_outline Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Pleasure / Role Of Pleasure / Influential Ideas ✓ Animals like to breed not have sexual pleasure-Plutarch ✓ Capacity for intense feeling is bad, not good-Plato ✓ Everything natural is pleasant-Plato ✓ Pleasure and pain control duty and desires-Bentham Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Pleasure / Value Of Pleasure / Influential Ideas ✓ Accept no pleasure unless it is beneficial-Democritus ✓ Animals without reason choose pleasure-Epicurus ✓ Bad pleasures prove pleasure isn't the good-Plato ✓ Bravery requires resistance to pleasure-Democritus Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Selfishness / Influential Ideas ✓ A living being is totally 'egoistic'-Nietzsche ✓ All voluntary acts are selfish-Hobbes ✓ Clever criminals can't flourish forever-Plato ✓ Good self love is of the higher soul-Aristotle Metaethics / Ethical Ends / Value / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Inconsiderate' shows facts and values blur-Putnam ✓ Aesthetics, unlike ethics, must be first hand-Gardner ✓ Criteria for lifestyles are life values-Frankfurt ✓ Freedom is the foundation of all values-Sartre Metaethics / Sources Of Ethics / Ethics From Reason / Influential Ideas ✓ Confucius shows ethics from reason-Wolff ✓ Every moral rule must have a reason-Locke ✓ Kant based law on reason, not faith-Taylor,R ✓ Moral and rational disapproval differ totally-Frankfurt Metaethics / Sources Of Ethics / Expressivism / Influential Ideas ✓ Approving old murders allows imitation-Ayer ✓ Disapproval is an addition to moral ideas-Miller,A ✓ Emotion is a type of evaluation-Achtenberg ✓ Emotivism can't cope with moral truth or error-Brink Metaethics / Sources Of Ethics / Expressivism / Good And Evil Are Just Objects Of Love/ Influential Ideas ✓ hate-Hobbes Metaethics / Sources Of Ethics / Human Nature / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Essentialism' says there is a human nature-Mautner ✓ A natural appetite replenishes deficiency-Aristotle ✓ A whole man has a function, like his organs-Aristotle ✓ Abstraction divides humans from animals-Locke Metaethics / Sources Of Ethics / Intuitionism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Conscience' values intention, not consequence-Nietzsche ✓ 'Intuition' just conceals bad argument-MacIntyre ✓ Brainwashing a feeling of guilt is easy-Mill ✓ Can the moral sense make mistakes?-Hutcheson Metaethics / Sources Of Ethics / Particularism / Influential Ideas ✓ Morality only seems graspable locally-Prichard ✓ Theory and moral behaviour are separate-Camus ✓ We don't prove morality; we see it directly-Prichard ✓ We need an instance to see a duty-Prichard Metaethics / Sources Of Ethics / Prescriptivism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Ought' implies consistent principles-Hare ✓ 'I don't like staying at good hotels'-Williams,B ✓ Abandon our own ideals for the many?-Williams,B ✓ Acquire and then aim at everyone's preferences-Hare Believe you can and you’re halfway there. -theodore rooseveltperson_outline Mind And Body / Behaviourism / Behavioural Dispositions / Influential Ideas ✓ Belief and desire help define dispositions-Harman ✓ Defining dispositions must mention qualia-Putnam ✓ Desires aren't directly linked to actions-Block ✓ Different mental states are just dispositions-Geach Mind And Body / Behaviourism / Behaviourism / Influential Ideas ✓ Behaviourism avoids oversimplification of mind-Kirk,R ✓ Behaviourism explains some things well-Kirk,R ✓ Behaviourism is reduction via definitions-Kim ✓ Define a mind as the cause of behaviour-Armstrong Mind And Body / Behaviourism / Behaviourism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Abstract beliefs don't lead to behaviour-Kim ✓ An inverted spectrum contradicts behaviourism-Kirk,R ✓ Animals learn for fun as well as reward-Rey ✓ Animals use minds, not just responses-Rey Mind And Body / Behaviourism / Instrumentalism / Influential Ideas ✓ Self is a fiction to explain motivation-Dennett ✓ The 'intentional stance' is for interpretation-Dennett ✓ The intentional strategy need believers-Rey ✓ Intentionality just predicts others' behaviour-Dennett Mind And Body / Functionalism / Causal Functionalism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Pain' contingently names a causal role-Lewis ✓ Are function and realiser identical?-Armstrong ✓ Combine type type identity and functionalism-Lewis ✓ Experiences are causal, and hence physical-Lewis Mind And Body / Functionalism / Chinese Room / Influential Ideas ✓ A program is person and manual-Lowe ✓ A vey simple program cannot understand-Dennett ✓ Can the Room ask itself questions?-Westaway ✓ Chinese Room attacks machine intentionality-Chalmers Mind And Body / Functionalism / Functionalism / Influential Ideas ✓ Allow inverted spectrum, but avoid chauvinism-Lycan ✓ Aristotle's soul can't accommodate reason-Ackrill ✓ Behaviour not brains proves minds exist-Rey ✓ Blurred vision has no function at all-Burge Mind And Body / Functionalism / Functionalism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Computation presupposes consciousness-Searle ✓ Could Bolivia's economy have mental states?-Block ✓ Environment is needed to define a belief-Putnam ✓ Formal structures have varied interpretations-Rey Mind And Body / Functionalism / Homuncular Functionalism / Influential Ideas ✓ All functionalism is 'homuncular'-Dennett ✓ Mind is hierarchical complex homunculi-Fodor ✓ Parts of the soul might be build on machines-Rey ✓ We are made of crude intentional systems-Dennett Mind And Body / Functionalism / Machine Functionalism / Influential Ideas ✓ Mind has physical, functional & mental levels-Lycan Mind And Body / Functionalism / Machine Functionalism / The Software/ Influential Ideas ✓ hardware distinction is unclear-Lycan The fear of death follows from the fear of life. A man who lives fully is prepared to die at any time. person_outline Mind And Body / Functionalism / Psycho-Functionalism / Influential Ideas ✓ Being a heart is not a physical property-Heil ✓ Functional organisation causes consciousness-Chalmers Mind And Body / Functionalism / Teleological Functionalism / Influential Ideas ✓ Causal mental theories need teleology-Armstrong ✓ Function is reason for existence or activity-Polger ✓ Functions must serve an organism's purpose-Lycan ✓ Mental types are abstract teleological types-Lycan Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Dualism / Soul/ Influential Ideas ✓ body link physical, harmony or assistance-Kant Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Dualism Of Mind Critique / Even Descartes Says Mind/ Influential Ideas ✓ brain is united-Lycan Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Dualism Of Mind Critique / Mind/ Influential Ideas ✓ body problems are errors about substance-Ayer Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Epiphenomenalism / Influential Ideas ✓ A total epiphenomenon is undetectable-Dennett ✓ Epiphenomanlism is a weird causal dangler-Papineau ✓ Epiphenomenalism's consistent with physicalism-Perry ✓ Epiphenomenalism makes mind pointless-Alexander,S Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Interactionism / Influential Ideas ✓ All causes are odd, not just mental ones-Heil ✓ Descartes saw the interaction problem-Descartes ✓ For Cartesians interaction is just a miracle-Fodor ✓ How can thoughts be semantic and causal?-Fodor Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Occasionalism / Influential Ideas ✓ God's laws, not God's miracles-Molnar ✓ No mind body interaction or intervention-Leibniz ✓ Occasionalism leads to false doctrines-Leibniz Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Panpsychism / Influential Ideas ✓ Bodies contain sense and appetite-Leibniz ✓ Maybe minimal souls are everywhere-Leibniz ✓ Ordinary matter is potentially conscious-McGinn ✓ Particles seem not to have sensation-Lucretius Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Parallelism / Influential Ideas ✓ How does the mind know about the body?-Crease Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Parallelism / Mind/ Influential Ideas ✓ body knowledge, but no influence-Leibniz When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains however improbable must be the truth. -sherlock holmesperson_outline Mind And Body / Mind-Body Dualism / Zombies / Influential Ideas ✓ Are inverted or absent qualia possible?-Kim ✓ Are mind and body contingently related?-Heil ✓ Brain state without the pain seems possible-Kripke ✓ Explain experience to the non conscious-Nagel Mind And Body / Physicalism / Anti-Physicalism / Explanatory Gap / Influential Ideas ✓ Conceptual differences cause the gap-Papineau ✓ Only phenomenal states have a gap-Levine ✓ Physicalism needn't explain what it is like-Kirk,R ✓ Why do those neurons cause that feeling?-Levine Mind And Body / Physicalism / Anti-Physicalism / Knowledge Argument / Influential Ideas ✓ Colour adds to the physical information-Jackson ✓ Headaches and their physiology are different-Heil ✓ Mary meets new concepts, not new properties-Papineau ✓ Qualia inversion undermines functionalism-Kim Mind And Body / Physicalism / Anti-Physicalism / Modal Argument / Influential Ideas ✓ Are brain events and pain inseparable?-Kripke ✓ Pain is not necessarily a brain state-Kripke ✓ Pain is picked out by an essential property-Kripke ✓ Pain must be pain; brain states needn't be-Kripke Mind And Body / Physicalism / Anti-Physicalism / Multiple Realisability / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Multiple realisabilty' needs separate levels-Heil ✓ Brains need speed, and transducers-Dennett ✓ Expalin qualia less behaviour and vice versa-Lewis ✓ Functional but not phenomenal similarity?-PG Mind And Body / Physicalism / Anti-Physicalism / Physicalism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Atoms alone cannot produce a mind-Plutarch ✓ Complexity is no sort of explanation-Rey ✓ Do new ideas make brains weigh more?-Dance ✓ Eight features of mind are hard to explain-Rey Mind And Body / Physicalism / Causal Argument / Influential Ideas ✓ Are physical effects caused twice over?-Papineau ✓ Cause unites our picture of the universe-Davidson ✓ Double causation is the proof of physicalism-Sturgeon ✓ Higher levels don't add causal powers-Kim Mind And Body / Physicalism / Conceptual Dualism / Influential Ideas ✓ Body and mind are exclusive concepts-Descartes ✓ Dualism is conceptual, not ontological-Papineau ✓ Simply identify mental states with their host-Quine Mind And Body / Physicalism / Connectionism / Influential Ideas ✓ Connectionism explains pattern recognition-Rey ✓ Connectionism has node and branch levels-Rey ✓ Connectionism is good on irrationality-Rey ✓ Connectionism is just modern associationism-Fodor Mind And Body / Physicalism / Eliminativism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Consciousness' is a nonentity-James ✓ Can eliminativism account for logic?-Putnam ✓ Consciousness exists, but is misunderstood-Dennett ✓ Folk psychology may be irreducible but true-Kirk,R Mind And Body / Physicalism / Physicalism / Influential Ideas ✓ Body type affects conceptual scheme-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Martian pain might be a different feeling-Lewis ✓ Mind is state, event, process or property-Polger ✓ Physicalism allows that bodies have experience-Papineau It is always darkest just before the dawn. -thomas fullerperson_outline Mind And Body / Physicalism / Physicalism / Pain/ Influential Ideas ✓ brain identity is non rigid & contingent-Lewis Mind And Body / Physicalism / Reductionism / Influential Ideas ✓ A priori reductionism seems right-Lewis ✓ Biology presumes uncontradictable chemistry-Friend ✓ Brain causes mind, but they may differ-Searle ✓ Formerly identical 'processes', now properties-Heil Mind And Body / Property Dualism / Anomalous Monism / Influential Ideas ✓ All mind links causally to matter-Davidson ✓ Anomalous monism is uninformative-Kim ✓ Mental events aren't extra physical events-Davidson ✓ Only mental causation denies epiphenomenalism-Maslin Mind And Body / Property Dualism / Anomalous Monism / Mind & Matter Can Be One Event/ Influential Ideas ✓ two properties-Davidson Mind And Body / Property Dualism / Emergentism / Influential Ideas ✓ Emergentism just accepts supervenience-Crane ✓ Emergentism may be right about qualia-Kim ✓ For emergentists supervenience is inexplicable-Kim ✓ Physics doesn't entail mind, but causes it-Chalmers Mind And Body / Property Dualism / Mysterianism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Consciousness' seems indefinable-Searle ✓ Bat behaviour may not be 'like' anything-Dennett ✓ Can't think the neurons, can't see the thought-McGinn ✓ Consciousness is inexplicable at the moment-Heil Mind And Body / Property Dualism / Property Dualism / Influential Ideas ✓ Beliefs are high level physical processes-Lyons ✓ Consciousness is like water's liquidity-Searle ✓ Mental causation needs physical properties-Davidson ✓ No one is dualist about 'liquidity' of water-Chalmers Mind And Body / Property Dualism / Reductionism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Boundaries of higher sciences are irreducible-Heil ✓ Can reductionisms explain intentional error?-Crane ✓ High level properties disappear if reduced-Heil ✓ Mind as anomaly makes reduction impossible-Davidson Mind And Body / Property Dualism / Supervenience Of Mind / Influential Ideas ✓ Are all souls identical to one another?-Kim ✓ Epiphenomenalism is non physical supervenience-Papineau ✓ Maybe supervenience can't avoid reductionism-Kim ✓ Non causal supervenience is epiphenomenal-Searle Mind And Body / Property Dualism / Supervenience Of Mind / Mind/Brain Are Cause/ Influential Ideas ✓ effect supervenient-Searle Natural Reality / Components Of Nature / Atoms / Influential Ideas ✓ All infinitely divisible objects are the same-Lucretius ✓ All things differ, so there can't be atoms-Leibniz ✓ Appearances are convention; atoms are real-Democritus ✓ Are the surfaces of a cut cone equal or not?-Democritus Whenever you do a thing, act as if all the world were watching. -thomas jeffersonperson_outline Natural Reality / Components Of Nature / Energy / Influential Ideas ✓ Realists must believe in energy-Ellis Natural Reality / Components Of Nature / Force / Influential Ideas ✓ Force gives reality and identity-Leibniz ✓ Force is like a soul causing change-Leibniz ✓ Force is what produces action-Leibniz ✓ Forces are inferred, and predict-Newton Natural Reality / Components Of Nature / Mass / Influential Ideas ✓ Newton conserves mass, Einstein doesn't-Bird Natural Reality / Components Of Nature / Matter / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Gunk' is an atomless individual-Chihara ✓ All things with identity have matter-Aristotle ✓ Aristotelain matter transforms-Aristotle ✓ Aristotle's matter is active-Aristotle Natural Reality / Components Of Nature / Movement / Influential Ideas ✓ A single body cannot move-Berkeley ✓ Animals initiate movement; why not the cosmos?-Aristotle ✓ Atomism makes all velocities equal-Sext Empiricus ✓ Atoms move themselves-Lucretius Natural Reality / Components Of Nature / Physical Change / Influential Ideas ✓ Change is either alteration or motion-Plato ✓ Everything is in continuous destruction-Aurelius ✓ Human concepts of change are just words-Parmenides ✓ Love and hatred are the cause of all change-Empedocles Natural Reality / Cosmos / Beginning / Influential Ideas ✓ All motion derives from something self moving-Plato ✓ Creation from existence or non existence?-Aristotle ✓ Earth was created, because it changes-Augustine ✓ Existence must precede non existence Natural Reality / Cosmos / Cosmology / Influential Ideas ✓ Destruction is quicker than construction-Lucretius ✓ Earth casts a spherical shadow on the moon-Aristotle ✓ Hesperus and Lucifer are the same star-Parmenides ✓ Joshua said, Sun, stand thou still Natural Reality / Cosmos / Cosmology / Cosmos Open/ Influential Ideas ✓ closed, purpose, alive, eternal?-Robinson,TM Natural Reality / Cosmos / Infinite / Influential Ideas ✓ Actual infinity is incoherent-Aristotle ✓ Gods are eternal, humans transient ✓ Nothing could exist to limit the universe-Lucretius ✓ Some infinities are bigger than others-Spinoza Natural Reality / Cosmos / Unique Cosmos / Influential Ideas ✓ There may be more than one cosmos-Aristotle You’ve gotta dance like there’s nobody watching, love like you’ll never be hurt, sing like there’s nobody listening, and live like it’s heaven on earth. -william w. Purkeyperson_outline Natural Reality / Life / Biology / Influential Ideas ✓ Biology is a type of engineering-Dennett ✓ Eurytus made Pythagorean pictures with pebbles-Eurytus Natural Reality / Life / Ecology / Influential Ideas ✓ Humans are %+ of all living tissue-Gray ✓ What gives nature value? Life? Diversity?-Rowlands ✓ Is the environment intrinsically valuable?-Crisp,R Natural Reality / Life / Evolution / Influential Ideas ✓ Apart from language, we are just animals-La Mettrie ✓ Cultural evolution is Lamarckian and fast-Wilson,EO ✓ Darwin's idea was the best idea ever-Dennett ✓ Darwin overestimates 'external circumstances'-Nietzsche Natural Reality / Life / Life / Influential Ideas ✓ Are plants just slow animals?-Dennett ✓ Life is just chemistry, not a magic gel-Pinker ✓ Life is largely an informational process-Gulick ✓ Move,Breathe,Sense,Eat,Excrete,Reproduce,Grow-PG Natural Theory / Causation / Causation / Causation / Influential Ideas ✓ A cause was any valid explanation-Scruton ✓ A priori reasoning can lead to nonsense-Hume ✓ Causal statements have five uses-Kim ✓ Causation precedes explanation-Psillos Natural Theory / Causation / Causation / Causation As Primitive / Influential Ideas ✓ Causation is primitive if all accounts need it-Schaffer,J ✓ The concept of cause is built into language-Anscombe ✓ Three objections to primitivist causation-Schaffer,J Natural Theory / Causation / Causation / Direction Of Causation / Influential Ideas ✓ Add cause to physics to explain directionality-Field,H ✓ Assuming causal direction goes too far-Lewis ✓ Causal direction may not be time direction-Schaffer,J ✓ Causation theories should explain direction-Lewis Natural Theory / Causation / Causation / Eliminating Causation / Influential Ideas ✓ Causation is in science, not in equations-Schaffer,J ✓ Many explanations need causation-Schaffer,J ✓ Use powers to analyse causation-Molnar Natural Theory / Causation / Causation / Eliminating Causation / Cause/ Influential Ideas ✓ event contiguity creates problems-Russell Natural Theory / Causation / Causation / Final Causes / Influential Ideas ✓ Final cause is just human desire-Spinoza ✓ Material, Formal, Efficient and Final causes-Aristotle ✓ We can't know final causes-Hume ✓ Wisdom links efficient and final causes-Leibniz Natural Theory / Causation / Causation / Naturalised Causation / Influential Ideas ✓ A process's connection may not be causal-Schaffer,J ✓ A process needs causation to explain it-Schaffer,J ✓ Absences cause, so cause isn't in nature-Schaffer,J ✓ Analyse causation in terms of powers-Molnar Do one thing every day that scares you. -eleanor rooseveltperson_outline Natural Theory / Causation / Causation / Types Of Cause / Influential Ideas ✓ Are causal relata events or facts?-Bennett ✓ Causation is singular not constant conjunction-Ducasse ✓ Cause in own right, and cause coincidentally-Aristotle ✓ Cause is counterfactual, probable, or energy-Crane Natural Theory / Causation / General Causation / Constant Conjunction / Influential Ideas ✓ A spread out conjunction is not a cause-Shoemaker ✓ All causation is seen by constant conjunction-Hume ✓ Appearances can't show necessity in causes-Kant ✓ Causation is extrinsic to events-Psillos Natural Theory / Causation / General Causation / Counterfactual Causation / Influential Ideas ✓ Abandon counterfactuals; take causes literally-Mumford ✓ Analyse counterfactuals using causation!-Horwich ✓ Causal counterfactuals must avoid backtracking-Lewis ✓ Causation explains the counterfactuals-Molnar Natural Theory / Causation / General Causation / Natural Necessity / Influential Ideas ✓ Can a situation involve necessary causation?-Sosa ✓ Causation may be naturally necessary, no more-Lowe ✓ Causation obviously involves necessity-Kant ✓ Effects necessarily follow causes-Spinoza Natural Theory / Causation / General Causation / Nomological Causation / Influential Ideas ✓ Causal laws don't explain its direction-Tooley ✓ Causality may have to involve a law-Maslin ✓ Causation comes from reason, not perception-Lockwood ✓ Causation follows strict unconditional laws-Davidson Natural Theory / Causation / Particular Causation / Causal Relata / Influential Ideas ✓ Causal conditions are tropes-Campbell,K ✓ Causal explanation depends on descriptions-Davidson ✓ Causal relata are relative to description-Anscombe ✓ Causal relata are spacetime regions-Quine Natural Theory / Causation / Particular Causation / Conditions Of Causation / Influential Ideas ✓ A cause is all the preceding conditions-Mill ✓ A cause is part of a sufficient set-Mackie ✓ Are causes sufficient, necessary, or both?-Sosa&Tooley ✓ Are the total necessities sufficient?-Sanford Natural Theory / Causation / Particular Causation / Observation Of Causation / Influential Ideas ✓ Are causal relations observed, or theoretical?-Sosa&Tooley ✓ Bodily pressure and action show causation-Tooley ✓ Causation is deduced from supposed free will-Nietzsche ✓ Causation is presupposed in psychology-Psillos Natural Theory / Causation / Particular Causation / Probabilistic Causation / Influential Ideas ✓ Actual causes may make an event less likely-Schaffer,J ✓ Actual causes may not be very efficacious-Tooley ✓ Causes make effects more probable-Mellor ✓ Probabilistic causes makes effects more likely-Mellor Natural Theory / Causation / Particular Causation / Selecting The Cause / Influential Ideas ✓ A cause is an INUS condition-Mackie ✓ Causation depends on cause selection-Schaffer,J ✓ Causes are adjacent in time and space-Ducasse ✓ Causes are members of sufficient sets-Lewis Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Basis Of Nature / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Physical' is in physics or just in space time-Lycan ✓ All things are one-Heraclitus ✓ Anaxagoras thought the basics were infinite-Anaxagoras ✓ Being, space and becoming are eternal-Plato We don't see things as they are, we see them as we are. - anais ninperson_outline Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Natural Kinds / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Cats are animals' is a necessary truth-Kripke ✓ 'Water' is a natural kind, but not 'HO'-Putnam ✓ A 'mule' is just a combination of kinds-Aristotle ✓ All water is roughly the same-Aristotle Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Space / Influential Ideas ✓ Energy fields are discontinuous-Molnar ✓ How can a 'place' have a location?-Zeno of Elea ✓ How could we tell if God shifted the universe?-Leibniz ✓ No extra points in extra dimensions-Clegg Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Substance / Substance / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Ousia' is 'being', not 'substance'-Aristotle ✓ 'Ousia' is NOT 'substance'-Aristotle ✓ Aggregates must reduce to substances-Leibniz ✓ Attributes suffice to reveal a substance-Descartes Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Substance / Substance Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ A bundle substance keeps changing-Macdonald ✓ A die is no more than its properties-Berkeley ✓ Phenomenalism implies the bundle view-Macdonald ✓ Physicists' belief in substance is dubious-Russell Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Substance / Substance Defined / Influential Ideas ✓ Activity is the essence of substance-Leibniz ✓ Add concept, law, force, form, soul-Leibniz ✓ Bundles mean indiscernibles identical-Macdonald ✓ Diverse universals are not substances-Witt Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Substance / Types Of Substance / Influential Ideas ✓ A point is a substance with a position-Aristotle ✓ A subject has a 'primary' substance-Aristotle ✓ Are substances particulars, or kinds?-Aristotle ✓ Everyone agrees on about ten substances-Aristotle Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Time / Beginning Of Time / Influential Ideas ✓ Most agree that time can have no beginning-Democritus ✓ Time was created with the cosmos-Plato Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Time / Presentism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Presentism' says there is only the present-Moreland ✓ An instant is the time of a single idea-Locke ✓ How can past and future exist?-Augustine ✓ Presentism implies the present cannot change-Dummett Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Time / Time / A Is Past/Future; B Is Before/ Influential Ideas ✓ after-McTaggart Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Time / Time And Change / Influential Ideas ✓ Cyclical freezes might coincide for one year-Shoemaker ✓ No one can sense time without movement-Lucretius ✓ Observing the cosmos leads to time and number-Plato ✓ There is no time prior to change happening-Dummett Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Time / Time As Subjective / Influential Ideas ✓ Does time depend on mind?-Aristotle ✓ Maybe time is an extension of mind-Augustine ✓ Time is just the flow of our ideas-Berkeley ✓ We cannot imagine the non existence of time-Kant Do one thing every day that scares you. -eleanor rooseveltperson_outline Natural Theory / Concepts Of Nature / Unlimited / Influential Ideas ✓ Existence combines the Limited and Unlimited-Philolaus ✓ Reality is the unlimited moving in a cycle-Anaximander ✓ The boundless is the first principle of things-Anaximander ✓ The unlimited has no form-Plato Natural Theory / Heart Of Nature / Natural Function / Influential Ideas ✓ Are events unnatural if they happen by force?-Aristotle ✓ Each thing's function is its end-Aristotle ✓ Function is entirely relative to our desires-Searle ✓ Function is unique or superior ability-Plato Natural Theory / Heart Of Nature / Natural Purpose / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Purpose' is a human invention-Nietzsche ✓ 'Purpose' is a tiny part of the wasted energy-Nietzsche ✓ A thing's end determines its nature-Aristotle ✓ A thing's nature is its end and purpose-Aristotle Natural Theory / Heart Of Nature / Nature / Influential Ideas ✓ Actions aren't natural when willed-Hegel ✓ Change is the basis of nature-Aristotle ✓ Humans invented the idea of nature-Empedocles ✓ Nature does nothing in vain-Aristotle Natural Theory / Heart Of Nature / One / Influential Ideas ✓ Being is not divisible, since it is all alike-Parmenides ✓ Being is one-Melissus ✓ Endless division culminates in nothingness-Parmenides ✓ Parts of the cosmos change, not the whole-Anaximander Natural Theory / Heart Of Nature / Pythagoreanism / Influential Ideas ✓ Everything is knowable through numbers-Philolaus ✓ Maths is essential to understand nature-Galileo ✓ Number & harmony are limited and always true-Philolaus ✓ Only numbers can make an orderly universe-Philolaus Natural Theory / Laws Of Nature / Closure Of Physics / Influential Ideas ✓ Leibniz accepted the completeness of physic-Leibniz Natural Theory / Laws Of Nature / Counterfactual Claims / Influential Ideas ✓ 'If he jumped, there was a net'-Psillos ✓ Causes are explained by counterfactuals-Lewis ✓ Causes are what make a difference-Psillos ✓ Counterfactuals are ok if you understand laws-Cohen,LJ Natural Theory / Laws Of Nature / Laws From Universals / Influential Ideas ✓ Armstrong gives a fictionalist view of laws-Bird ✓ Causal law 'events' must be particulars-Russell ✓ Contingent necessity? Can it necessitate?-Bird ✓ Laws are necessities between universals-Mumford Natural Theory / Laws Of Nature / Laws Of Nature / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Laws of nature' a medieval invention-Hall ✓ Are our laws exceptionless, or real?-Russell ✓ Benefits are always lost, never gained-Aristotle ✓ Existence requires laws-Bird Natural Theory / Laws Of Nature / Regularities / Best System Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ A law is a coherent system of regularities-Psillos ✓ Choose axioms where best theories intersect-Mumford ✓ Laws are axioms of the best deductive system-Lewis ✓ Laws are axioms of the simplest system-Ramsey It is never too late to be who you might have been. - george eliotperson_outline Natural Theory / Laws Of Nature / Regularities / Regularity Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ Essentialist laws are guaranteed regularities-Bird ✓ Lots of laws, each with a few instances?-Bird ✓ No best fit, if laws are just their instances-Bird ✓ Other hard diamonds don't explain this one-Bird Natural Theory / Laws Of Nature / Regularities / Regularity Theory / Is 'Uranium/ Influential Ideas ✓ Gold lumps are small' a law?-Bird Natural Theory / Laws Of Nature / Scientific Essentialism / Anti Scientific Essentialism / Influential Ideas ✓ Essentialism blocks science progress-Popper ✓ Gravity is not innate in matter-Newton ✓ How can essence generate appropriate force?-Armstrong ✓ Physical dispositions need modal quantifiers-Quine Natural Theory / Laws Of Nature / Scientific Essentialism / Necessity From Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ A law necessitates salt dissolving in water-Bird ✓ Different laws needs different properties-Shoemaker ✓ Essentialists say natural laws are necessary-Ellis ✓ Fire can never be cold-Aristotle Natural Theory / Laws Of Nature / Scientific Essentialism / Scientific Essentialism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Gold' includes a real unknown essence-Leibniz ✓ 'Laws' are merely power relations-Nietzsche ✓ 'Laws' are symptoms of the will to power-Nietzsche ✓ Assess essential by examining possibilities-Mumford Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Blindsight / Influential Ideas ✓ Blindsight destroys one of two visual systems-Lowe ✓ Blindsight is a bit like our peripheral vision-Dennett ✓ Blindsight isn't truly aware-Chalmers ✓ Blindsighters get very little information-Dennett Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Consciousness / Cause Of Consciousness / Influential Ideas ✓ Awareness plus something is consciousness-Chalmers ✓ Consciousness could be quantum binding-Penrose ✓ Consciousness is in our frontal lobes-Carter,R ✓ Consciousness is interacting neuron groups-Edelman&Tononi Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Consciousness / Consciousness / The Conscious/ Influential Ideas ✓ unconscious line is blurred-Dennett Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Consciousness / Higher-Order Thought / Influential Ideas ✓ Actual higher thought makes consciousness-Papineau ✓ Animals may experience without knowing-Perry ✓ Can a thought become conscious if remembered?-Papineau ✓ Consciousness is conscious of itself-Sartre Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Consciousness / Parts Of Consciousness / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Phenomenal' and 'apperceptive' consciousness-Lowe ✓ Consciousness has five components-Carter,R ✓ Language is crucial to consciousness-Dennett ✓ Let's unify intentionality and qualia-Kirk,R Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Intentionality / Character Of Intentionality / Influential Ideas ✓ Attitudes can aim at objects and propositions-Crane ✓ Bird behaviour is 'about' worms-Kirk,R ✓ Dreams generate meaning without input-Edelman&Tononi ✓ Every mental event has an object-Brentano Go to heaven for the climate and hell for the company. -mark twainperson_outline Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Intentionality / Intentionality Theories / Influential Ideas ✓ Are qualia intentional, or a bonus property?-Crane ✓ Berkeley denies intentionality-Berkeley ✓ Consciousness makes intentionality unreducible-Sturgeon ✓ Does intentional content need causal links?-Heil Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Inverted Qualia / Influential Ideas ✓ Change of qualia may change behaviour-Dennett ✓ Crosswired qualia undermine functionalism-Kim ✓ Qualia shifts undermine causal role-Kim ✓ Violet and marigold could be inverted-Locke Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Privacy / Influential Ideas ✓ A lion that talked would be unlike other lions-Dennett ✓ Bat minds aren't that private or mysterious-Dennett ✓ Complete physics doesn't predict consciousness-Chalmers ✓ Penetrate privacy by scan and experience-Douglas,A Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Unconscious Mind / Influential Ideas ✓ Are unconscious states mental or not?-Searle ✓ Beliefs and desires without consciousness?-Lockwood ✓ Consciousness can't see or speak-McGinn ✓ Disguised self love implies an unconscious-Rochefoucauld Nature Of Minds / Features Of Minds / Unity Of Mind / Influential Ideas ✓ Are parts of the soul separate, or not?-Aristotle ✓ Consciousness is not a united entity-Nietzsche ✓ Eternal truths unite thinking minds-Sartre ✓ How do lots of neurons give smooth experience?-Chalmers Nature Of Minds / Mind / Animal Minds / Influential Ideas ✓ Animal thought is imagination, not reason-Leibniz ✓ Animals cannot entertain general ideas-Locke ✓ Animals have ideas, so they have reason-Berkeley ✓ Animals have soul, but not consciousness-Leibniz Nature Of Minds / Mind / Anti-Individualism / Influential Ideas ✓ Broad concepts extend the mind outwards-Burge ✓ Externalism denies privileged access-Rowlands ✓ No border between inner and outer-Harman ✓ Others can know your thoughts better than you-Rowlands Nature Of Minds / Mind / Brain / Influential Ideas ✓ Big primate social groups produce big brains-Carter,R ✓ Brain at seven weeks; all neurons by birth-Carter,R ✓ Conscious states last milliseconds-Edelman&Tononi ✓ Dualist concepts hamper our brain research-Papineau Nature Of Minds / Mind / Mental Causation / Influential Ideas ✓ Beliefs are caused by other beliefs-Kim ✓ Causation is our central belief about mind-Kim ✓ Cause events by causing thoughts-Perry ✓ Does mind or body move the pineal gland?-Spinoza Nature Of Minds / Mind / Mind / Features Of Mind / Influential Ideas ✓ Mental states have causal powers-Fodor ✓ Mind consists of qualities and intentionality-Kim ✓ Mind is neither intentional nor phenomenal-Rorty ✓ Mind moves, perceives, and is incorporeal-Aristotle Nature Of Minds / Mind / Mind / Location Of Mind / Influential Ideas ✓ Alcmaeon said thinking is in the brain-Alcmaeon ✓ Experiments prove brain controls body-Galen ✓ Externalists say minds depend on environment-Lowe ✓ Head injuries prove soul is in the brain-Montaigne Live fast, die young, and leave a good-looking corpse. -irene l. Luceperson_outline Nature Of Minds / Mind / Mind / Mind / Influential Ideas ✓ Minds as intentional, or conscious?-Molnar ✓ Reject properties to ditch mind body problems-Rorty ✓ The mind is the idea of the body-Spinoza ✓ There are no minds, only mental properties-Davidson Nature Of Minds / Mind / Mind / Purpose Of Mind / Influential Ideas ✓ A mind is an organ of representation-Lewis ✓ Mind is a thinking substance-Leibniz ✓ Presumably the mind evolved to think with-Fodor ✓ Intellect and senses simplify everything-Nietzsche Nature Of Minds / Mind / Mind / Questions About Mind / Influential Ideas ✓ Is mind separate, and is it unique?-Lowe Nature Of Minds / Mind / Mind / Questions About Mind / Are Mental And Physical Types/ Influential Ideas ✓ tokens distinct?-Sturgeon Nature Of Minds / Mind / Other Minds / Other Minds / Influential Ideas ✓ Feel the consciousnesses of others ✓ Other people are possible worlds-Deleuze&Guattari Nature Of Minds / Mind / Other Minds / Other Minds By Analogy / Influential Ideas ✓ Analogy to other minds has insufficient basis-Maslin ✓ Analogy treats mind as separate but knowable-Dancy,J ✓ Analogy with myself reveals other minds-Mill ✓ Analogy won't prove a robot conscious-Grayling Nature Of Minds / Mind / Other Minds / Scepticism Of Other Minds / Influential Ideas ✓ Are other minds quite unlike my own?-Davidson ✓ Consciousness can't grasp other consciousness-Sartre ✓ Empiricists can say nothing of other minds-Ayer ✓ No induction can prove something unobservable-Ayer Nature Of Minds / Mind / Psuché / Influential Ideas ✓ Appetite can even drive out reason-Aristotle ✓ Appetite is close to the body and reason not-Plato ✓ Aristotle's soul is, roughly, personality-MacIntyre ✓ Nourishment implies a vegetative soul-Aristotle Ontology / Categories / Categories / Categories / Influential Ideas ✓ A criterion of identity fixes a category-Westerhoff ✓ Categories are axioms, not absolutes-Westerhoff ✓ Categories are basic bits of states of affairs-Westerhoff ✓ Categories are conventional, not intrinsic-Westerhoff Ontology / Categories / Categories / Categories / Reality Is Facts/ Influential Ideas ✓ states of affairs, not things-Armstrong Ontology / Categories / Categories / Categories / The Role/ Influential Ideas ✓ occupant distinction is basic-Lycan Never delay kissing a pretty girl or opening a bottle of whiskey. - ernest hemingwayperson_outline Ontology / Categories / Categories / Categories / Universal/Particular, Or Abstract/ Influential Ideas ✓ concrete?-Lowe Ontology / Categories / Categories / Proposed Categories / Influential Ideas ✓ Nominalism, Extensionalism or Intensionalism?-Orenstein Ontology / Categories / Categories / Proposed Categories / Continget/Necessary;Individual/State/ Influential Ideas ✓ non state-Chisholm Ontology / Categories / Categories / Proposed Categories / Norm:Property/Relation/Entity/Abstracta/Set/ Influential Ideas ✓ -Westerhoff Ontology / Categories / Categories / Proposed Categories / Universal/Particular;Kind/Concrete/ Influential Ideas ✓ abstract-Lowe Ontology / Categories / Objects / Abstract/Concrete / Influential Ideas ✓ Do abstractions depend on all concreta?-Szabó ✓ Token words concrete, type words abstract-Hale Ontology / Categories / Objects / Abstract/Concrete / Abstract/ Influential Ideas ✓ concrete is a misfit in physics-Ladyman&Ross Ontology / Categories / Objects / Abstract/Concrete / Are Colours Or Points Concrete/ Influential Ideas ✓ abstract?-Hale Ontology / Categories / Objects / Abstract/Concrete / Concrete/ Influential Ideas ✓ abstract is a sliding scale-Dummett Ontology / Categories / Objects / Abstract/Concrete / Maths Divides Concrete/ Influential Ideas ✓ abstract differently-Shapiro Ontology / Categories / Objects / Abstract/Concrete / Sharp Concrete/ Influential Ideas ✓ abstract divide is unnecessary-Dummett On your last day on earth, the person you became will meet the person you could have become. ” — anonymousperson_outline Ontology / Categories / Objects / Abstract Objects / Influential Ideas ✓ A Fregean 'object' is broader than normal-Hale ✓ A temporal non spatial mind is abstract-Hale ✓ Abstract nouns like identity criteria-Dummett ✓ Abstract objects are a pseudo problem-Dummett Ontology / Categories / Objects / Levels Of Abstraction / Influential Ideas ✓ Abstraction levels go from sets to formulas-Burgess&Rosen ✓ Higher degree abstractions represent more-Arnauld,A&Nicole,P ✓ Mathematical abstraction steadily ascends-Burgess&Rosen ✓ Maybe abstraction is in ordered stages-Fine,K Ontology / Categories / Objects / Objects Of Thought / Influential Ideas ✓ A thing is fixed by all possible thought of it-Dedekind ✓ An object of thought is a unified entity-Russell ✓ For us, objects require concepts-Frege ✓ Frege needs objects for names and predicates-Frege Ontology / Categories / Objects / Physical Objects / Influential Ideas ✓ Accept objects if they explain things-Lowe ✓ An 'object' is a structural concept-Shapiro ✓ Assuming objects simplifies experience-Quine ✓ Bodies are coextensions with spaces-Hobbes Ontology / Categories / Powers / Against Powers / Influential Ideas ✓ Powers are their exercise-Hume ✓ Propensities in situations, not objects-Popper ✓ We can't tell what properties are causal-Lewis ✓ We cannot experience the powers-Hume Ontology / Categories / Powers / Causal Powers / Influential Ideas ✓ A power's type is its manifestation-Molnar ✓ Action is occurrences within substances-Leibniz ✓ Actions give the idea of 'power'-Locke ✓ Activity is the source of change-Aristotle Ontology / Categories / Powers / Dispositions / Influential Ideas ✓ All genuine properties are dispositional-Shoemaker ✓ Are property dispositions built in or added?-Heil ✓ Capacities only exist during activity-Aristotle ✓ Dispositions are powers, not properties-Shoemaker Ontology / Categories / Powers / Powers And Dispositions / Influential Ideas ✓ All powers are ultimately intrinsic-Molnar ✓ Casual power is a kind of disposition-Ellis ✓ Dispositions make properties detectable-Heil ✓ Real essences are powers-Copi Ontology / Categories / Powers / Powers And Properties / Influential Ideas ✓ Abstract properties are a separate problem-Shoemaker ✓ Non causal properties are eliminable-Shoemaker ✓ Peripheral powers give the qualities-Leibniz ✓ Properties and causes are closely related-Shoemaker Ontology / Categories / Processes / Events / Influential Ideas ✓ Adverbs need events to predicate of-Davidson ✓ Each event has a unique causal history-Bennett ✓ Events are changes in objects-Lowe ✓ Events don't have identity conditions-Simons Ontology / Categories / Processes / Events As Primitive / Influential Ideas ✓ Explanation of normal talk needs events-Davidson ✓ Knowing events precedes causes and effects-Dummett ✓ Russell reduced force & matter to events-Russell ✓ Singular causation needs events-Lowe In the middle of every difficulty lies opportunity. -albert einsteinperson_outline Ontology / Categories / Processes / Moments / Influential Ideas ✓ A smile is a thing, not an event-Simons ✓ A wave isn't itself a process-Simons ✓ Disturbances are changing moments-Simons Ontology / Categories / Processes / Processes / Influential Ideas ✓ Objects are a type of process-Ellis ✓ One thing with stages is a process-Quine ✓ Process ontology mustn't refer to objects!-Simons ✓ Processes are stuff, events are countable-Simons Ontology / Categories / Processes / Reduction Of Events / Influential Ideas ✓ An event is a change in or to an object-Lombard ✓ Events are changes in energy distribution-Ellis ✓ Events are exemplifications of properties-Kim ✓ Events are fast changes of interest to us-O'Connor Ontology / Categories / Processes / Reduction Of Events / Events Are Changes In Properties/ Influential Ideas ✓ relations-Lowe Ontology / Categories / Properties / Categorical Properties / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Categorial' properties rest on categories-Wedin ✓ A property is no more than distinctive-Bird ✓ Any class of things whatever is a property-Lewis ✓ Categorical is non causal, but causes-Ellis Ontology / Categories / Properties / Denial Of Properties / Influential Ideas ✓ Are infinite properties needed to know one?-Macdonald ✓ Just 'all red things are coloured things'-Quine ✓ Only particulars exist-Putnam ✓ Predicates are not names-Quine Ontology / Categories / Properties / Emergent Properties / Influential Ideas ✓ Are there resultant and emergent properties?-Crane ✓ Causation can operate above mere physics-Kim ✓ Complex properties are not new properties-Heil ✓ Complex properties do not 'emerge'-Heil Ontology / Categories / Properties / Natural Properties / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Being physical' is second order-Molnar ✓ Examine things to find natural properties-Lewis ✓ Natural properties for resemblance and causes-Lewis ✓ Naturalness is just featuring in content-Lewis Ontology / Categories / Properties / Natural Properties / Demarcation Fixes Objects/ Influential Ideas ✓ natural properties-Lewis Ontology / Categories / Properties / Nature Of Properties / Influential Ideas ✓ An object on its own has intrinsic properties-Merricks ✓ Are properties abstract or concrete?-Oliver ✓ Can properties have parts?-Swoyer ✓ Just treat 'property' and 'set' the same-Shapiro Ontology / Categories / Properties / Nature Of Properties / Particular/ Influential Ideas ✓ property has four conditions-Oliver If you want something done right, do it yourself. -charles-guillaume étienneperson_outline Ontology / Categories / Properties / Nature Of Properties / Particular/Property: Sui Generis/ Influential Ideas ✓ construction?-Oliver Ontology / Categories / Properties / Nature Of Properties / Trilateral/ Influential Ideas ✓ triangular are always coextensive-Lewis Ontology / Categories / Properties / Properties As Predicates / Influential Ideas ✓ Abundant properties are concepts or predicates-Bird ✓ Are qualities Fregean objects?-Hale ✓ Attributes are functions, not objects-Geach ✓ Every property has a possible predicate-Mellor Ontology / Categories / Properties / Structural Properties / Influential Ideas ✓ Categorical properties are structural-Ellis ✓ Structural properties are derivate-Molnar ✓ There are no 'structural properties'-Molnar Ontology / Categories / Relations / Ancestral Relation / Influential Ideas ✓ An qancestral creates a chain of relations-Smith,P ✓ Ancestral relations are transitive-Wiggins ✓ Backwards iteration derives an 'ancestral'-Frege Ontology / Categories / Relations / Equivalence / Influential Ideas ✓ A symmetrical transitive relation is equality-Russell Ontology / Categories / Relations / Internal Relations / Influential Ideas ✓ Relational properties are non essential-Macdonald ✓ The order of numbers is an internal relation-Wittgenstein ✓ Things always contain external references-Hegel ✓ Internal relations appear necessary-Wittgenstein Ontology / Categories / Relations / Nature Of Relations / Influential Ideas ✓ 'North of' is a non mental universal-Russell ✓ External relations imply an infinite regress-Bradley ✓ Relations are separate predicates-Cover&O'Leary Hawthorne ✓ Relations are sets of ordered pairs-Potter Ontology / Categories / Relations / Reflexivity / Influential Ideas ✓ Reflexive relations are ontologically monadic-Molnar ✓ Reflexiveness is self referring, and basic-Russell ✓ Self relation is a special privileged relation-Benardete,JA Ontology / Existence / Being / Influential Ideas ✓ Being baffles because non being does-Politis Ontology / Existence / Being / Being:Incidental,Per Se,Potential/ Influential Ideas ✓ actual,truth-Wedin Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other. -john f. Kennedyperson_outline Ontology / Existence / Criterion Of Existence / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Real' and 'fundamental' are different-Fine,K ✓ 'Something exists' instantiates no properties-McGinn ✓ Action is the criterion for existence-Chrysippus ✓ Causation delimits existence too narrowly-Bird Ontology / Existence / Existence / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Exists' is predicate, not quantifier-Fine,K ✓ 'Ontology' means 'study of things which exist'-Maslin ✓ 'Thing' and 'to be' assert the same idea-William of Ockham ✓ Affirmation of existence is denial of zero-Frege Ontology / Existence / Logical Atoms / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Simples' are inferred, not experienced-Russell ✓ 'Tractatus' is extreme logical atomism-Wittgenstein ✓ Assert facts, and name simples-Russell ✓ Basics are simple sensation and reflection-Locke Ontology / Existence / Materialism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Exist' varies, but so do things!-Fodor ✓ Abstract ideas are impossible-Berkeley ✓ Abstracta are existential metaphors-Yablo ✓ Abstraction is either trivial or problematic-Carnap Ontology / Existence / Monads / Influential Ideas ✓ A substantial chain links the monads-Leibniz ✓ Animated substantial points exist-Leibniz ✓ Atomists say body is sensible-Garber ✓ How do monads relate to bodies?-Garber Ontology / Existence / Non-Being / Influential Ideas ✓ No existence no properties-Azzouni ✓ Reference of that which is not?-Plato ✓ Some say non existents 'are'-Aristotle ✓ We affirm being of absences-Aquinas Ontology / Existence / Ontological Commitment / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Pegasus is Pegasus' may be true-Hale&Wright ✓ 'Ideological' and 'ontological' commitment-Linnebo ✓ Abstractions exist with no causal powers-Lowe ✓ All truths must be logically expressible-Quine Ontology / Existence / Ontological Commitment / To Be Is To Be The Value Of A Variable/ Influential Ideas ✓ pronoun-Quine Ontology / Existence / Ontological Dependence / Influential Ideas ✓ Essence is what founds dependence-Molnar ✓ Essence may need another's existence-Fine,K ✓ Exist separately, or entirely alone?-Simons ✓ Prior things can exist on their own-Aristotle Ontology / Existence / Reason For Existence / Influential Ideas ✓ Being cannot be created or perish-Empedocles ✓ Being is maximal consistency-Jacquette ✓ Existence is completeness and consistency-Jacquette ✓ Existence is logically impossible-Gorgias Ontology / Existence / Stuff / Mixtures / Influential Ideas ✓ Mixtures need similar quantities of stuff-Simons ✓ Water parts lose identity in mixtures-Laycock I haven’t failed, i’ve found 10,000 ways that don’t work. -thomas edisonperson_outline Ontology / Existence / Stuff / Pure Stuff / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Much' but not 'many' for masses-Simons ✓ Continuity establishes rocks, but not fluids-Russell ✓ Gold is not the same as its atoms-Simons ✓ Mass terms are indifferent to division-Simons Ontology / Existence / Supervenience / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Supervenience' is hopelessly ambiguous-Searle ✓ Constitution is supervenience without identity-Crane ✓ Fixed relations make an 'expression'-Leibniz ✓ Mereological supervenience is parts fix whole-Kim Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Against Essentialism / Influential Ideas ✓ Ancient essentialism is a bar to progress-Popper ✓ Are universal properties essential?-Mumford ✓ Aristotelian essence has become verbal-Quine ✓ Essences of things are merely opinions-Nietzsche Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Bare Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Thisness' is no longer useful-Wiggins ✓ A 'substratum' is just a metaphor-Leibniz ✓ Activity is essential to substance-Leibniz ✓ Bare particulars need real properties-Stalnaker Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Definitional Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ Define essence by properties or propositions-Fine,K ✓ Defining just is giving the essence-Fine,K ✓ Definition is of just one thing-Aristotle ✓ Definition is the account of essence-Aristotle Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ A simple substance is its own essence-Aquinas ✓ A thing's essence is its real possibilities-Cover&O'Leary Hawthorne ✓ All constituting parts are essential-Brody ✓ Are essences universals?-Aristotle Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Essence Of Artefacts / Influential Ideas ✓ Essential parthood is transitive-Simons ✓ Original parts are essential to artefacts-Simons ✓ There are artificial kinds-Locke Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Essential Properties / Influential Ideas ✓ A property in all worlds is essential-Stalnaker ✓ Artefacts have fuzzy essences-Forbes,G ✓ Complete concepts include contingents-Leibniz ✓ Each property is unpredictable-Locke Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Explanatory Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Form' is explanatory, not ontological-Wedin ✓ 'What is it?' points to persistance-Wiggins ✓ A distinct idea of gold is not a perfect idea-Leibniz ✓ Aristotelian essences are causal-Aristotle Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Haecceity / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Haecceitism' is belief in a thing's thisness-Kaplan ✓ 'Haecceitism' is shared or distinct thisness-Kaplan ✓ A haecceity does nothing but individuate-Duns Scotus ✓ A haecceity is being identical with that thing-Plantinga Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Hylomorphism / Influential Ideas ✓ Add physical force to hylomorphism-Leibniz ✓ All properties essential, or almost none?-Rami ✓ Aristotelian and Individuating essentialism ✓ Bodies need a soul like unifier-Leibniz A rose by any other name would smell as sweet. -julietperson_outline Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Individual Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ An individual essence must be unique-Mackie,P ✓ Aristotle rejects individual essences-Aristotle ✓ Does Aristotle like propertyless subjects?-Aristotle ✓ Essence causes unified substances-Aristotle Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Modal Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Must' for propositions, 'must' for essences-Simons ✓ 'Necessarily' doesn't replace 'essentially' ✓ 'Idion' is necessary but not essential-Aristotle ✓ Accidents can possibly not belong to a thing-Aristotle Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Natural Kind As Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Same kind' won't support essentialism-Mackie,P ✓ A kind is necessary for a real essence-Suárez ✓ Being an x is consequent, not constitutive-Fine,K ✓ Essences determine natural kinds?-Brody Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Nominal Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Malleable' is in gold's nominal essence-Locke ✓ A sortal refers to a nominal essence-Wiggins ✓ Can one instance show a natural kind?-Leibniz ✓ Keep real and nominal essence separate-Ellis Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Origin As Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ Necessity of origin is just identity-Forbes,G ✓ One's original sex couldn't differ-Forbes,G ✓ Only origin guarantees reference-Kripke ✓ Origin does not explain an essence-Aristotle Ontology / Identity / Essentialism / Sortal Essentialism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Sortal' comes from the word 'sort'-Locke ✓ A whole must fall under a kind-Wiggins ✓ Activity and relation guide sortals-Wiggins ✓ Did Aristotle accept species essence?-Aristotle Ontology / Identity / Identity / Identity / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Partly broad' a relation, adverb, or segment?-Lowe ✓ No concept is more basic than identity-McGinn ✓ Number is the cause of recognition-Philolaus ✓ Over time and at a time are the same-Wiggins Ontology / Identity / Identity / Perfect Identity / Influential Ideas ✓ A form or soul must unite a body-Leibniz ✓ Phosphorus necessarily equals Hesperus-Wiggins ✓ Same ousia and essence? One thing!-Aristotle ✓ We see unities everywhere-Locke Ontology / Identity / Identity / Relative Identity / Influential Ideas ✓ Being just 'the same' is meaningless-Geach ✓ Does 'being same F' split in two?-Perry ✓ Kind concepts precede identity criteria-Lowe ✓ Relative identity is just resemblance-Perry Ontology / Identity / Identity / Type Identity / Influential Ideas ✓ Are types and tokens different objects?-Geach ✓ Best to just speak of identity or resemblance-McGinn ✓ Classify by paradigms, not pigeon holes-Sainsbury ✓ Numerical and generic sameness-Aristotle Ontology / Identity / Identity Between Objects / Coincident Objects / Influential Ideas ✓ Two objects in the same place?-Simons ✓ We can imagine interpenetrating bodies-Leibniz Failure is the condiment that gives success its flavor. - truman capoteperson_outline Ontology / Identity / Identity Between Objects / Identity Between Objects / Influential Ideas ✓ How can identities be informative?-Frege ✓ Leibniz's Law is essentialist-Oderberg ✓ Leibniz applies to '=' and 'same f'?-Wiggins ✓ Objects have synthetic a posteriori identity-Lycan Ontology / Identity / Identity Between Objects / Indiscernible Objects / Influential Ideas ✓ Leibniz had three versions of his Law-Macdonald ✓ Only discernible in counterparts?-Zimmerman,DW ✓ Identity of Indiscernibles is not necessary-Macdonald ✓ Indiscernibles have possible differences-Zimmerman,DW Ontology / Identity / Identity Between Objects / Indiscernible Objects / Indiscernibles' Identity: Contentious/ Influential Ideas ✓ trivial-Melia Ontology / Identity / Identity Over Time / Change And Identity / Influential Ideas ✓ Cambridge Change is only relative change-Dummett ✓ Change components, qualities or substance-Lowe ✓ Change is new creation, or just phases?-Lowe ✓ Fix time to property, or object, or no change-Lowe Ontology / Identity / Identity Over Time / Four-Dimensional Identity / Influential Ideas ✓ D things are stretched and non entire-Fine,K ✓ Four dimensional objects are very odd-Simons ✓ Getting horses from horse stages?-Wiggins ✓ Only an object can individuate a temporal part-Lowe Ontology / Identity / Identity Over Time / Identity Over Time / Influential Ideas ✓ A boat is not the planks of which it is made-Heil ✓ Both ships satisfy a criterion-Simons ✓ Knowledge requires unchanging entities-Aristotle ✓ Limiting % change for identity won't work-Lowe Ontology / Identity / Identity Over Time / Intermittent Objects / Influential Ideas ✓ Are intermittent objects ever natural?-Simons ✓ Beginnings are unique to each thing-Locke ✓ Intermittence: rebuild a toy fort, same bricks-Chisholm ✓ Intermittent objects are less unified-Simons Ontology / Identity / Identity Over Time / No Identity Over Time / Influential Ideas ✓ A tree has no identity, strictly speaking-Butler ✓ Economy of language leads to identity-Reid ✓ Heraclitus implies nothing at all stays still-Plato ✓ Mind sees noises and churches as continuous-Hume Ontology / Identity / Identity Over Time / Temporal Parts / Influential Ideas ✓ Dists can accept temporal parts-Fine,K Ontology / Identity / Identity Over Time / Three-Dimensional Identity / Influential Ideas ✓ Can things endure while changing shape?-Lewis ✓ D has stretch and entirety conditions-Fine,K ✓ Enduring wholly present, perduring partially-Lowe ✓ Motion requires entire presence-Fine,K Ontology / Identity / Intrinsic Identity / Composition / Influential Ideas ✓ Can any two objects make a third?-Merricks ✓ Change of atoms is identity change-Locke ✓ Complexes: masses, composites, or sets-Hossack ✓ Composition is asymmetric and transitive-Simons Whatever you are, be a good one. -abraham lincolnperson_outline Ontology / Identity / Intrinsic Identity / Constitution / Influential Ideas ✓ A statue and its matter are different-Macdonald ✓ A statue and lump of bronze are distinct-Heil ✓ A thing is its parts, or its whole substance-Merricks ✓ Hands constitute, but don't compose, fists-Simons Ontology / Identity / Intrinsic Identity / Individuation / Influential Ideas ✓ Distinction is by property or relation-Black ✓ Diversity is difference in space time-Lowe ✓ Fix identity now and over time-Mackie,P ✓ Four relations reveal unity-Leibniz Ontology / Identity / Intrinsic Identity / Intrinsic Identity / Influential Ideas ✓ Accidental unity comes in degrees-Leibniz ✓ Accidental unity has degrees-Leibniz ✓ Can we discover if a person is time slices?-Shapiro ✓ Concreta aren't bundles of abstracta-Oliver Ontology / Identity / Intrinsic Identity / No Intrinsic Identity / Influential Ideas ✓ At an instant we see unity but not identity-Hume ✓ Fluidity is basic, and we decide the entities-Leibniz ✓ Folk ontology is no better than the arbitrary-Merricks ✓ The unities counting needs may not exist-Nietzsche Ontology / Identity / Mereology / Axioms Of Mereology / Influential Ideas ✓ Combine set theory with mereology?-Fine,K ✓ Extensional mereology is concisely defined-Hossack ✓ Mereology bad on time and modality-Simons ✓ Parthood is transitive and asymmetric-Simons Ontology / Identity / Mereology / Groups / Influential Ideas ✓ Groups are united collections-Simons ✓ Same members, two groups-Simons ✓ Wolves and a pack have different identity-Simons Ontology / Identity / Mereology / Mereology / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Part' is a word with several meanings-Simons ✓ A universal whole, but no universal part-Varzi ✓ Base mereology on natural divisions?-Abelard ✓ Classical mereology is weak in practice-Simons Ontology / Identity / Mereology / Parts / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Part' has a huge variety of references-Varzi ✓ 'Part': reflexive, antisymmetric, transitive-Varzi ✓ Maybe identity is an extreme of parthood-Varzi ✓ Membership is intransitive, unlike parts-Lesniewski Ontology / Identity / Mereology / Sums / Influential Ideas ✓ Collections are fixed, fusions carvable-Potter ✓ No possible world with individuals-Simons ✓ Sum plurals and masses, not individuals-Simons ✓ We can sum things in different categories-Simons Ontology / Identity / Mereology / Terminology Of Mereology / Influential Ideas ✓ Atom: individual without parts, At x-Simons ✓ Difference: remainder of an overlap, x y-Simons ✓ Disjoint: don't overlap, x | y-Simons ✓ Dissective: all parts are still the stuff-Simons Ontology / Identity / Mereology / Wholes / Influential Ideas ✓ All parts are necessary for a whole-Leibniz ✓ Any things can fuse mereologically-Lewis ✓ Arrangement prevents parts fixing whole-Varzi ✓ Cat fusions involve no more commitment-Lewis person_outline Ontology / Identity / Vague Identity / Degrees Of Vagueness / Influential Ideas ✓ Could million valued logics solve sorites?-Fisher ✓ Give vagueness a third or fuzzy value-Keefe&Smith ✓ How is a degree of redness to be decided?-Keefe&Smith ✓ People cannot be fully ordered by niceness-Keefe&Smith Ontology / Identity / Vague Identity / Problem Of Vagueness / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Or' might drift from exclusive to inclusive-Sorensen ✓ A blurry border is still a border-Shapiro ✓ A or B might be true, but not A and not B-Dummett ✓ A precise borderline area is not vague-Keefe&Smith Ontology / Identity / Vague Identity / Supervaluation / Influential Ideas ✓ Borderline cases must be under our control-Fine,K ✓ Make vagueness precise to produce truth-Fine,K ✓ Meaning is actual and potential-Fine,K ✓ Supervaluation has non classical semantics-Keefe&Smith Ontology / Identity / Vague Identity / Vagueness As Epistemic / Influential Ideas ✓ A vague concept cannot be discriminated-Williamson ✓ Close ideas can't all be named-Locke ✓ More information won't settle borderline tall-Keefe&Smith ✓ No knowledge close to conceptual boundaries-Williamson Ontology / Identity / Vague Identity / Vagueness In Reality / Influential Ideas ✓ Baldness is indeterminate, unlike hair-Jackson ✓ Mount Everest has naturally fuzzy boundaries-Keefe&Smith ✓ Mountains are vague, so don't exist?-Williamson ✓ Only representations can be vague-Russell Ontology / Knowledge Of Modality / A Posteriori Necessary / Influential Ideas ✓ Natural laws are necessary a posteriori-Ellis ✓ Necessities about tables are not a priori-Kripke ✓ Necessity can only be known empirically-Dancy,J ✓ Quine said abstracta are known a posteriori-Quine Ontology / Knowledge Of Modality / A Priori Analytic / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Things have one place' is verifiable-Ierubino ✓ 'Things have one place' might be tautological-Ayer ✓ Logic & definitions enough for analytic truths-Frege ✓ Logic & maths can't be synthetic-Wittgenstein Ontology / Knowledge Of Modality / A Priori Contingent / Influential Ideas ✓ Designation gives a priori contingent truths-Kripke ✓ Knowing God's choices: a priori contingent-Leibniz ✓ Stick a meter long is contingent a priori-Kripke Ontology / Knowledge Of Modality / A Priori Necessary / Influential Ideas ✓ Many necessities are inexpressible-Kitcher ✓ Maths is necessary, so it must be a priori-Kant ✓ Modal thought is part of normal thought-Williamson ✓ Necessary in fact, but contingent to us?-Putnam Ontology / Knowledge Of Modality / A Priori Necessary / Maybe A Priori Logic/ Influential Ideas ✓ geometry are relative?-O'Grady Ontology / Knowledge Of Modality / A Priori Synthetic / Influential Ideas ✓ 'A cow is not a horse' is synthetic a priori-Dancy,J ✓ += is not analytic-Kant ✓ A 'faculty' can't explain synthetic a priori-Nietzsche ✓ A priori we don't know, we anticipate-Kant Familiarity breeds contempt. -aesopperson_outline Ontology / Knowledge Of Modality / Conceivable As Possible / Influential Ideas ✓ Conceiving impossibilities is easy-Reid ✓ Necessity depends too much on conceivability-Segal ✓ Nothing we imagine is absolutely impossible-Hume ✓ Possibility is no longer seen as imaginability-Bird Ontology / Modalities / Chance / Influential Ideas ✓ Chance is a coincidental cause-Aristotle ✓ Chance is just a secondary cause-Aristotle ✓ Maybe choices cause coincidences-Aristotle Ontology / Modalities / Conditionals / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Not' and 'and' explain some conditionals-Quine ✓ 'If' is conditional if A implies B-Enderton ✓ Are conditionals sometimes unassertible?-Grice ✓ Are conditionals truth functional?-Read Ontology / Modalities / Contingency / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Contingent' is imperfect knowledge-Spinoza ✓ Contingency is an ignorant illusion-Spinoza ✓ Contingent existence needs a reason-Leibniz ✓ Contingent means the cause is unperceived-Hobbes Ontology / Modalities / Counterfactuals / Influential Ideas ✓ Counterfactuals are logical inferences-Mautner ✓ Counterfactuals are possible world facts-Mautner ✓ Counterfactuals are valid rather than true-Mautner ✓ Counterfactuals examine powers-Jacobs Ontology / Modalities / Modality / Influential Ideas ✓ Modal realism: modality is factual-McFetridge ✓ Modal truths are facts of this world-Jubien ✓ Modality is actual but abstract-Jubien ✓ Modality: metaphysical and epistemic-Edgington Ontology / Modalities / Necessity / Denial Of Necessity / Influential Ideas ✓ A priori truths are provisional assumptions-Nietzsche ✓ All necessity is verbal, hence 'de dicto'-Putnam ✓ De re necessity is a form of de dicto-Jubien ✓ Empiricists say modality is just regularity-Fine,K Ontology / Modalities / Necessity / Metaphysical Necessity / Influential Ideas ✓ Certainty must precede apriori synthetic-Quine ✓ Logical modality OK, thanks to models-Shapiro ✓ Logical necessities are deduced from anything-McFetridge ✓ Logical necessity blocks all falsehood-McFetridge Ontology / Modalities / Necessity / Natural Necessity / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Gold is malleable' is necessary non analytic-Audi ✓ Apparent physical necessity is total necessity-Kripke ✓ Causal necessities hold, with the laws-Lewis ✓ Laws are based on a posteriori necessity-Kripke Ontology / Modalities / Necessity / Necessity / Influential Ideas ✓ All necessities are demonstrable-Leibniz ✓ Being must have a limit, to be perfect-Parmenides ✓ Even gods must accept necessity-Pittacus ✓ Everything happens by reason and necessity-Leucippus Ontology / Modalities / Necessity / Types Of Necessity / Influential Ideas ✓ Analytic truths of logic and of concepts-Girle ✓ De re needs transworld identity-Forbes,G ✓ How do we know 'events have causes'?-Baggini&Fosl ✓ Keep our concept of necessities simple-Jackson Smile, breathe and go slowly. - thich nhat hanhperson_outline Ontology / Modalities / Possibility / Epistemic Possibility / Influential Ideas ✓ Epistemic is independent of logically possible-McFetridge ✓ Epistemically possible 'for all I know'-Rami Ontology / Modalities / Possibility / Possibility / Influential Ideas ✓ A perfect idea reveals possibility-Leibniz ✓ Actual world changes show possibilities-Shoemaker ✓ An objects possibilities must also beknown-Wittgenstein ✓ Essentialist are modal realists-Ellis Ontology / Modalities / Probability / Influential Ideas ✓ Probability of tails is a fact about a coin-Bird ✓ Probability was mastered-Hacking ✓ Statistical and epistemological probability-Hacking ✓ There is subjective and objective probability-Bird Ontology / Possible Worlds / Nature Of Possible Worlds / Actualism / Influential Ideas ✓ Armstrong's actualism is the best version-Armstrong ✓ Modality resides in actual properties-Jacobs ✓ Reductionist, or moderate realist actualism-Read ✓ Worlds rest on object possibilities-Wiggins Ontology / Possible Worlds / Nature Of Possible Worlds / Modal Realism / Influential Ideas ✓ A world is a maximal mereological sum-Lewis ✓ Are all possibilities really actual?-Oderberg ✓ Concrete worlds are at least evidence-Jacobs ✓ How can we know possible worlds?-Forbes,G Ontology / Possible Worlds / Nature Of Possible Worlds / Nature Of Possible Worlds / Influential Ideas ✓ Definitions of possible worlds include actual-Fine,K ✓ Possible world: linguistic or real or abstract-Perry ✓ Possible worlds are points of logical space-Forbes,G ✓ Possible worlds sets of possible tropes?-Bacon,John Ontology / Possible Worlds / Nature Of Possible Worlds / Worlds As Fictions / Influential Ideas ✓ A possible world implies true propositions-Melia ✓ Possible worlds are world stories-Adams,RM ✓ Stories may be impossible-Wiggins ✓ Three problems with linguistic possible worlds-Lewis Ontology / Possible Worlds / Nature Of Possible Worlds / Worlds As Propositions / Influential Ideas ✓ Are remote proposition structures worlds?-Jacquette ✓ Possible world fix domain truth values-Read ✓ Separating 'exists' and 'actual' seems odd-Jacquette ✓ The actual world is maximally consistent-Jacquette Ontology / Possible Worlds / Possible Worlds / Against Possible Worlds / Influential Ideas ✓ Could existence happen to be necessary?-Jubien ✓ Do possible worlds contain possible worlds?-Lowe ✓ How many 'possible worlds' are there?-Jubien ✓ Lewis's possible worlds are circular-Shalkowski Ontology / Possible Worlds / Possible Worlds / Possible Worlds / Influential Ideas ✓ Consistent states & properties make actuality-Jacquette ✓ Modals can be quantifiers in possible worlds-Melia ✓ Mythical possibilities give correct logic?-Shapiro ✓ Necessity & counterfactuals aren't primitives-Melia Ontology / Possible Worlds / Transworld Identity / Counterparts / Influential Ideas ✓ A counterpart is the unique resembler-Lewis ✓ Concrete worlds require counterparts-Read ✓ Counterparts are close and closest resemblers-Lewis ✓ Counterparts are under a relation-Mackie,P Life is like a box of chocolates. You never know what you’re gonna get. -forrest gump’s momperson_outline Ontology / Possible Worlds / Transworld Identity / Rigid Designation / Influential Ideas ✓ Begin with actual objects, not possible worlds-Kripke ✓ Elizabeth II necessarily originated as she did-Kripke ✓ Empty designators have meaning-Evans ✓ Non existents can have rigid reference-Kripke Ontology / Possible Worlds / Transworld Identity / Transworld Identity / Influential Ideas ✓ A different life means a different person-Leibniz ✓ Bare particulars solve transworld identity-Kaplan ✓ Bizarre identities are pointless-Stalnaker ✓ Could Adam and Noah gradually swap?-Chisholm Ontology / Sources Of Modality / Necessity As Primitive / Influential Ideas ✓ Even God can't undo what is done-Agathon ✓ Some necessary truths are brute-Leibniz Ontology / Sources Of Modality / Necessity By Convention / Influential Ideas ✓ Can necessity rest on contingent conventions?-Hale ✓ Communication precedes conventions-Quine ✓ Convention needs a non conventional basis-Fogelin Ontology / Sources Of Modality / Necessity From Concepts / Influential Ideas ✓ Concepts don't explain necessities-Hale ✓ Concepts generate their own necessities-Fine,K ✓ De re necessity is conceptual-Forbes,G Ontology / Sources Of Modality / Necessity From Essence / Influential Ideas ✓ Essences make metaphysical necessities true-Ellis ✓ Essentialism is belief in de re necessity-Mautner ✓ Metaphysical necessity from all natures-Fine,K ✓ Necessary features may not be essential-Fine,K Ontology / Sources Of Modality / Sources Of Necessity / Influential Ideas ✓ De re necessity depends on the world-Newton Smith ✓ Divine nature makes everything necessary-Spinoza ✓ Do necessity or contingency explain necessity?-Hale ✓ Each area has its own source of necessity-Fine,K Ontology / Universals / Instantiated Universals / Influential Ideas ✓ Can unique universals be 'similar'?-Oliver ✓ Colour must be in individuals-Aristotle ✓ Locating universals creates absurdities-Oliver ✓ Must a real universal depend on a particular?-Bird Ontology / Universals / Need For Universals / Influential Ideas ✓ A priori knowledge requires universals-Russell ✓ Allow universals to make accepted theory true-Quine ✓ Causes and laws of nature need universals-Mellor ✓ Communication is impossible without the forms-Plato Ontology / Universals / Nominalism / Class Nominalism / Influential Ideas ✓ A property is not bestowed by set membership-Heil ✓ Class and Resemblance Nominalism the same-Lewis ✓ Having a property is class membership-Lewis ✓ Nominalist definitions of sets are circular?-Lowe Ontology / Universals / Nominalism / Class Nominalism / Triangular/ Influential Ideas ✓ trilateral identical properties-Shoemaker The unexamined life is not worth living. -socratesperson_outline Ontology / Universals / Nominalism / Concept Nominalism / Influential Ideas ✓ General terms are concepts, not properties-Swoyer ✓ Maybe concepts and predicates are universals?-Armstrong ✓ Mere ideas can't be universals-Russell ✓ Universals are just repeated concepts-Armstrong Ontology / Universals / Nominalism / Mereological Nominalism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Red' is one object in space time-Quine ✓ Nominalists can appeal to mereological sums-Reck&Price ✓ Red is the largest red thing-Quine ✓ Squareness can't be the unity of all squares-Armstrong Ontology / Universals / Nominalism / Nominalism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Porridge' nominalists deny natural joints-Mumford ✓ 'Is square' doesn't pick out an object-Quine ✓ A universal present in contradictory things?-Abelard ✓ Accepting universals is arbitrary or pragmatic-Quine Ontology / Universals / Nominalism / Predicate Nominalism / Influential Ideas ✓ Not all predicates denote properties-Lowe ✓ Physical changes don't need predicates-Armstrong ✓ Predicates and properties are separable-Moreland ✓ Predicates are relational, or non referring Ontology / Universals / Nominalism / Resemblance Nominalism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Resemblance' itself is a universal-Russell ✓ 'Respects' seem rather like properties-Armstrong ✓ Clusters of powers can resemble in degrees-Mumford ✓ Does resemblance just depend on us-Campbell,K Ontology / Universals / Platonic Forms / Forms Critiques / Influential Ideas ✓ A form can't contain 'many' or 'one'-Aquinas ✓ Forms are less real than their particulars-Aristotle ✓ Forms are nonsense, or irrelevant-Aristotle ✓ Forms aren't separate from matter-Bacon Ontology / Universals / Platonic Forms / Partaking / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Beauty is beautiful' needs concept of beauty-Westaway ✓ Beauty is different from but present in things-Plato ✓ Concepts precede ideal cases of them-Fodor ✓ Forms can't be both universals and particulars-Aristotle Ontology / Universals / Platonic Forms / Platonic Forms / Influential Ideas ✓ All creation based on the Forms is good-Plato ✓ Anti Forms are parts of Forms-Plato ✓ Craftsmen know the form before the artefact-Plato ✓ Forms are the highest objects of desire-Plato Ontology / Universals / Platonic Forms / Self-Predication / Influential Ideas ✓ Forms have to be their own paradigms-Aristotle ✓ Justice itself must be just-Plato ✓ The Forms are not self predicating-Armstrong ✓ If ideas & things are alike, it causes a third-Plato Ontology / Universals / Trope Theory / Tropes / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Modes' shows dependence, unlike 'tropes'-Lowe ✓ 'Is wise' means a sum holds a set member-Williams,DC ✓ A 'trope' is an abstract particular-Williams,DC ✓ A trope is a bit of a property or relation-Bacon,John Ontology / Universals / Trope Theory / Tropes Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Paint it red' is universal, not a trope-Moreland ✓ An object isn't properties, it owns them-Heil ✓ Can tropes be split into parts?-Oliver ✓ Can two tropes coincide in space?-Lowe You can’t make an omelet without breaking a few eggs. -proverbperson_outline Ontology / Universals / Uninstantiated Universals / Influential Ideas ✓ Bare universals exist, having properties-Oliver ✓ Can being even exist in space?-Moreland ✓ Can redness be moving and stationary?-Moreland ✓ Facts about redness do not exist in space-Moreland Ontology / Universals / Universals / Influential Ideas ✓ Properties are one, but realised multiply-Moreland Ontology / Universals / Universals / The Model/ Influential Ideas ✓ copy view is a possible Realism-Moreland Ontology / Universals / Universals As Concepts / Influential Ideas ✓ Children gradually come to group objects-Wilson,EO ✓ Universals result from brain self mapping-Edelman&Tononi ✓ Whiteness is not a thought, but its content-Russell Personal Identity / Character Of The Self / Essential Self / Influential Ideas ✓ All languages can express 'I'-Lowe ✓ All souls are identical-Plato ✓ Must the self be All or Nothing?-Dennett ✓ Old people change, but remain similar-Plato Personal Identity / Character Of The Self / Ethical Self / Influential Ideas ✓ Morality requires a belief in the self-Rashdall ✓ There are links between self and goodness-Taylor,C ✓ What counts as a good or bad 'person'?-Hursthouse Personal Identity / Character Of The Self / External Properties / Influential Ideas ✓ Know the world to know yourself?-Kim ✓ Man is the sum of his actions-Sartre ✓ Modern views of personal identity are external-Martin&Barresi ✓ Perception needs no self, but action does-Searle Personal Identity / Character Of The Self / Inner Properties / Influential Ideas ✓ A self has to be conscious-Searle ✓ Modern self is reason, explore, commit-Taylor,C ✓ Persons think, relate, feel and are self aware-Glover ✓ Self is aware,reasonable,active,responsible-Searle Personal Identity / Character Of The Self / Persistence Of Self / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Self' at an instant, and 'person' over time-Locke ✓ 'Whose experience?' is a good question-Nagel ✓ A self is needed for responsibility and plans-Butler ✓ An agent necessarily has future self-Korsgaard Personal Identity / Persons / Existence Of Persons / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Person' derives from Roman law-Scruton ✓ A person can die as well as a body-Williams,B ✓ Agency is the key to personal identity-Korsgaard ✓ Being 'an individual' is social-Kusch Personal Identity / Persons / Persons As Reasoners / Influential Ideas ✓ Rational agents must have selfhood-Searle ✓ Reasons for action require a self-Searle ✓ Self uses intellect to control the body ✓ Steps of reasoning require personal identity-Reid First do no harm. -hippocratesperson_outline Personal Identity / Persons / Persons As Responsible / Influential Ideas ✓ Don't blame people for forgotten actions-Locke ✓ Past responsibility needs personal identity-Searle ✓ The law agrees that madness changes identity-Locke Personal Identity / Rejection Of The Self / Denial Of The Self / Influential Ideas ✓ 'I' is a fiction to simulate 'knowledge'-Nietzsche ✓ A reflective Ego is cut off from the world-Sartre ✓ Let individuality go, like the body's cells-Schopenhauer ✓ My own identity through change is boring-Parfit Personal Identity / Self-Awareness / Introspection / Influential Ideas ✓ Attention reveals any conscious state-Lehrer ✓ Blindsight shows introspection unreliable-Rey ✓ Empirical foundationalism is introspective-Shoemaker ✓ Experiments show introspection unreliable-Rey Personal Identity / Self-Awareness / Self-Knowledge / Influential Ideas ✓ Anti individualism denies self knowledge?-Burge ✓ Be conscious of yourself as mankind-Nietzsche ✓ Can self awareness be non perceptual?-Cassam ✓ Experiences do not intrinsically have an owner-Ayer Personal Identity / Self-Awareness / Undetectable Self / Influential Ideas ✓ A person is a bundle of fluctuating perception-Hume ✓ Like eyes, souls see things but not themselves-Cicero ✓ No self is observable apart from perceptions-Hume ✓ Self knowledge can only be appearance-Kant Personal Identity / Self As Body / Animalism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Animalism' says I am not a person-Olson ✓ A child can be held in your arms-Merricks Personal Identity / Self As Body / Brain As The Self / Influential Ideas ✓ We meet other people, not their brains-Maslin ✓ If my brain can survive, I am not my body-Lowe Personal Identity / Self As Body / Role Of The Body / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Person' refers to consciousness plus body-Strawson,P ✓ Body and memory are joint criteria-Ayer ✓ Consciousnesses are identified by bodies-Ayer ✓ Deduce a self rationally to avoid materialism-Kant Personal Identity / Self As Mind / Associated Self / Influential Ideas ✓ A body is needed to identify experiences-Ayer ✓ Bundles of experience are united by memory-Ayer ✓ Experiences are felt to be continuous-Ayer ✓ Hume sketches a causal theory of identity-Perry Personal Identity / Self As Mind / Psychological Continuity / Influential Ideas ✓ A man is a succession, bound by causal laws-Russell ✓ Branching is a problem for memory criteria-Williams,B ✓ Can't remember doing it? Not guilty!-Locke ✓ Consciousness unites the self-Locke Personal Identity / Self As Mind / Psychological Self Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Conscious states get identity from persons-Carruthers ✓ Consciousness can split into many persons-Reid ✓ Consciousness could pass to a new substance-Kant ✓ Consciousness is too unstable for identity-Reid Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far. -theodore rooseveltperson_outline Personal Identity / Self As Mind / Self And Memory / Influential Ideas ✓ A person is made of memories-Leibniz ✓ All experience being remembered is a regress-Ayer ✓ Bodily identity is needed to confirm memories-Shoemaker ✓ Causation extends the self beyond memory-Hume Personal Identity / Self As Mind / Self As Meta-Awareness / Influential Ideas ✓ A person needs second order thought-Dennett ✓ A self is needed to co ordinate mind modules-Fodor ✓ Humans exercise downward causation-Merricks ✓ Personhood may need nested intentionality-Rey Personal Identity / Self As Mind / Split Consciousness / Influential Ideas ✓ Saving twins by merging them is fine-Parfit ✓ Survival and personal identity are different-Parfit ✓ I can't imagine my brain being split-Nagel ✓ Identity of merged persons is verbal-Parfit Personal Identity / Self As Non-Physical / Cartesian Ego / Influential Ideas ✓ A centre of gravity is not a substance-Kant ✓ Minds grasp objects, so they are the essence-Feuerbach ✓ My essence consists entirely of thinking-Descartes ✓ Some cause must unify stages of the mind-Descartes Personal Identity / Self As Non-Physical / Spiritual Self / Influential Ideas ✓ Fixed identity implies substance-Butler ✓ Mind doesn't need a place or a material base-Descartes ✓ Self and substance seem unconnected-Hume ✓ Self is either a substance or its property-Butler Personal Identity / Self As Transcendent / A Priori Self / Influential Ideas ✓ Personal identity can't be known a priori-Nagel ✓ The self must exist to be self aware-Butler Personal Identity / Self As Transcendent / Kantian Ego / Influential Ideas ✓ A transcendental ego splits consciousness-Sartre ✓ Kant's 'I' is formal, not substantial-Kant ✓ Thought must belong to a self consciousness-Kant ✓ We must view ourselves as noumena-Kant Reason / Argument / Analogy / Influential Ideas ✓ All matters of fact are deduced by analogy-Hume ✓ Any difference can undermine an analogy-Hume ✓ Babylonians mainly thought by analogy-Watson ✓ Examples distort our grasp of rules-Kant Reason / Argument / Argument / Influential Ideas ✓ Arguments serve to explain, not to coerce-Lewis ✓ Valid arguments can still be rejected-Martin,M Reason / Argument / Open Question / Influential Ideas ✓ Clearly 'good' might be definable-Scruton Reason / Argument / Reductio Ad Absurdum / Influential Ideas ✓ Proof by showing absurdity of denial-Friend Honesty is an expensive gift. Don't expect it from cheap people. Warren buffetperson_outline Reason / Argument / Thought Experiments / Influential Ideas ✓ Reductionism is essential to thought-O'Grady ✓ Thinking is imagination and supposition-Aristotle Reason / Argument / Transcendental Argument / Influential Ideas ✓ Three requirements for transcendental ideas-Kant ✓ Transcendental arguments have preconceptions-Fodor Reason / Fallacies / Ad Hominem / Influential Ideas ✓ Ad Hominem attacks the man, not the argument-PG ✓ Face the consequences of your view-Locke Reason / Fallacies / Category Mistake / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Socrates and killing are two' is illegitimate Logic-Russell ✓ Bizarre sentences are meaningless, not false-Russell ✓ Differentiae of differents are different-Aristotle ✓ Don't ask if sleep is fast, or virtue square-Locke Reason / Fallacies / Circularity / Influential Ideas ✓ Circular arguments are formally valid-Hanna ✓ Circularity of premisses, or of rules-Braithwaite ✓ For Christians God must guarantee the senses-Nietzsche ✓ God guarantees our sense of truth-Descartes Reason / Fallacies / Fallacy / Influential Ideas ✓ At least fourteen informal fallacies-Hanna ✓ Fallacies are errors in reasoning-PG ✓ More obscure explains the obscure?-Hale&Wright ✓ If P then Q, Q, so P??-Hanna Reason / Fallacies / Fallacy Of Composition / Influential Ideas ✓ Composition is a mereology fallacy-Hanna ✓ Don't assume the whole is like the parts-Mautner ✓ Things needn't have their parts' properties-Macdonald ✓ If parts follow natural law, so must the whole-Cicero Reason / Fallacies / Fallacy Of Division / Influential Ideas ✓ Truth about a set is true about its members-PG Reason / Fallacies / Infinite Regress / Influential Ideas ✓ Only explanations are vicious regresses-McGinn ✓ Proving everything means an infinite regress-Aristotle Reason / Fallacies / Question Begging / Influential Ideas ✓ Don't assume what is being challenged-PG Reason / Inference / Entailment / Influential Ideas ✓ Entailment is logical requirement-Mautner Do one thing every day that scares you. -eleanor rooseveltperson_outline Reason / Inference / Material Implication / Influential Ideas ✓ Material implication has paradoxes-Lemmon ✓ The implications of a truth are always true-Russell ✓ If p then q is not{p and not q}-Sext Empiricus Reason / Inference / Modus Ponens / Influential Ideas ✓ Does modus ponens need complete proofs?-Shapiro ✓ Logical inference doesn't compel belief-Harman Reason / Inference / Strict Implication / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Entailment' is successful strict implication-Girle ✓ Lewis & Russell were confused about 'if then'-Quine ✓ Should random sentences imply one another?-Lewis,CI ✓ Strict implication is paradoxical-Mautner Reason / Laws Of Thought / Bivalence / Influential Ideas ✓ Maybe truth is indeterminate, or variable-O'Grady ✓ No bivalence if no reference or vagueness-Dummett ✓ No excluded middle without bivalence-Rowlands ✓ No one has successfully denied bivalence-Sorensen Reason / Laws Of Thought / Contraries / Influential Ideas ✓ Both parts needn't exist among contraries-Aristotle ✓ Contraries are as far apart as possible-Aristotle ✓ Contrariety has degrees, unlike contradiction-Aristotle ✓ Contrary to good is bad, but not vice versa-Aristotle Reason / Laws Of Thought / Excluded Middle / Influential Ideas ✓ Anti realists want to ditch excluded middle-Dummett ✓ Discoveries depend on excluded middle-Russell ✓ Does excluded middle fail for vagueness?-Fine,K ✓ Every proposition is either true or false-Chrysippus Reason / Laws Of Thought / Laws Of Thought / Influential Ideas ✓ Contradiction refers to things, not thoughts-Russell ✓ Laws of thought are laws of reality-Feuerbach ✓ Laws of thought are true but not axiomatic-Bolzano ✓ Linked clear sentences become unclear-Sorensen Reason / Laws Of Thought / Non-Contradiction / Influential Ideas ✓ Affirming p¬ p is misusing 'and' or 'not'-Quine ✓ Contradiction is impossible ✓ Contradictions cannot be true at the same time-Aristotle ✓ Denial of contradiction changes the subject-Quine Reason / Laws Of Thought / Ockham's Razor / Influential Ideas ✓ Belief in entities require reasons-Mellor&Oliver ✓ Believe only in what is causal?-Oliver ✓ Don't multiply entities beyond necessity-William of Ockham ✓ Either we demand simplicity, or reality does-Moreland Reason / Laws Of Thought / Opposites / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Everything is opposites' implies a regress-Aristotle ✓ Harmony arises from opposites-Heraclitus ✓ Only one thing can be contrary to something-Plato ✓ Opposite values prove that Forms are single-Plato Reason / Laws Of Thought / Sufficient Reason / Influential Ideas ✓ All existence has a cause-Plato ✓ Every event has a reason-Leibniz ✓ Every existence has a necessary cause-Spinoza ✓ Everything has a reason, demanding 'Why?'-Schopenhauer People who live in glass houses should not throw stones. -proverbperson_outline Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Alethic Modal Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Actual, necessary and possible differ in logic-Aristotle ✓ Modal logic has four main equivalences-Girle ✓ Modal logic is not an extensional language-Parsons,C ✓ Modal logic was only formalised later-Jacquette Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Epistemic Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ a knows P, and for all a knows, P-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ Knowers are assumed to know they know-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Modal Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ First order predicate calculus is extensional-Melia ✓ Kripke's semantics has presuppositions-Zalta ✓ Modal logic is metalogical, not metaphysical-Burgess&Rosen ✓ Modality is normally treated as quantifiers-Shapiro Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Modal Logic Systems / System B / Influential Ideas ✓ B has relflexive and symmetric conditions-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Modal Logic Systems / System D / Influential Ideas ✓ D has the serial condition-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ Must so does invalid in Deontic Logic D-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Modal Logic Systems / System K / Influential Ideas ✓ K has no accessibility conditions-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Modal Logic Systems / System K4 / Influential Ideas ✓ K has the 'transitive' condition-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Modal Logic Systems / System S4 / Influential Ideas ✓ S has fourteen modalities-Girle ✓ S is reflexive and transitive-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Modal Logic Systems / System S5 / Influential Ideas ✓ S has just six modalities-Girle ✓ S is reflexive, symmetric and transitive-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ S is the logic of metaphysics-Rumfitt ✓ S is the simplest possible worlds logic-Girle Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Modal Logic Systems / System T / Influential Ideas ✓ T has the reflexive condition-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Modal Logic Systems / Systems Of Modal Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Necessity: provable {S} always true {S}-Read ✓ Possible worlds S are sound and complete-Rossberg ✓ Varied accessibility shows multiple systems-Jacquette First do no harm. -hippocratesperson_outline Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Property {Λ-} / Influential Ideas ✓ lambda abstraction disambiguates-Fitting ✓ Must a condition imply a property?-Fine,K Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Temporal Logic / Will/Was Sometime, And Will/ Influential Ideas ✓ was always-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Tools Of Modal Logic / Derivation Rules Of Ml / Influential Ideas ✓ Necessity is truth in all accesible worlds-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ Possibility is truth in some accesible world-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Tools Of Modal Logic / Symbols Of Ml / Influential Ideas ✓ σ n: world accessible from σ-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ 'R' is accessibility, written yRx-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ Add box {necessarily} and diamond {possibly}-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ The symbol || is the 'forcing' relation-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Modal Logic Ml / Tools Of Modal Logic / Terminology Of Ml / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Predicate abstraction' give extra scoping-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ A 'frame' is possible worlds and accessibility-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ A 'model' is a frame plus truth specifications-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ Reflexive, transitive or symmetric relations-Fitting&Mendelsohn Reason / Nature Of Reason / Aims Of Reason / Influential Ideas ✓ Be cautious, analytical, systematic, panoramic-Descartes ✓ Consensus is the enemy of thought-Badiou ✓ Contradiction and reason giving are basic-Leibniz ✓ Doubt uncertain ideas as much as false ones-Descartes Reason / Nature Of Reason / Limits Of Reason / Influential Ideas ✓ A rich consistent world view may be impossible-Fogelin ✓ All discussion is uncertain and contradictory-Agrippa ✓ Being drunk can be the safer course-Baudrillard ✓ Chains of reasoning never terminate-Agrippa Reason / Nature Of Reason / Logos / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Logos' was later identified with 'techné'-Roochnik ✓ Aristotle's logos is rational talk about value-Roochnik ✓ Descartes had too narrow a view of reason-Roochnik ✓ Humans are the only animals with logos-Aristotle Reason / Nature Of Reason / Naturalising Reason / Influential Ideas ✓ Naturalism and rationality are compatible-Fodor ✓ Rationalisation leads to mental causation-Segal ✓ Rationality is built into intentionality-Searle ✓ Rationality is coordination of intentionality-Searle Reason / Nature Of Reason / On Reason / Influential Ideas ✓ All reasoning begins voluntarily-Kant ✓ Consistency depends on what is possible-Melia ✓ Deductive reason, and demonstration-Aristotle ✓ Deductively invalid reason can be useful-Mumford Reason / Nature Of Reason / On Reason / Reflective Equilibrium: Intuition/ Influential Ideas ✓ theory match-Fisher Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away. - maya angelouperson_outline Reason / Nature Of Reason / Pure Reason / Influential Ideas ✓ A natural space of reasons enables freedom-McDowell ✓ Body is misleading, but thought brings truth-Plato ✓ Pure reason handles concepts-Kant ✓ Pure reason is confined to understandings-Kant Reason / Nature Of Reason / Status Of Reason / Influential Ideas ✓ Descartes was purely rational, and superficial-Nietzsche ✓ Everyone should enjoy argument-Plato ✓ For Fichte our religion is human reason-Fichte ✓ Opposing reason is opposing truth-Leibniz Reason / Non-Classical Logics / Free Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Even free logic struggles with non existence-Bach ✓ Free logic is first order-Priest,G ✓ Free logic is for fictional objects-Friend ✓ Free logic makes no existence assumptions-Meinong Reason / Non-Classical Logics / Fuzzy Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Fuzzy logic has a big range of truth values-Fisher ✓ Fuzzy logic has continuous truth-Williamson ✓ Fuzzy sets, quantifiiers and modifiers-Read ✓ Fuzzy sets ground fuzzy logic-Mautner Reason / Non-Classical Logics / Intuitionist Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Is double negation elimination valid?-Friend Reason / Non-Classical Logics / Many-Valued Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Basic logic can fail in three value logics-Fisher ✓ Three value logic has T, F and I{ndeterminate}-Lukasiewicz Reason / Non-Classical Logics / Paraconsistency / Influential Ideas ✓ Non contradiction is a psychological matter-Brouwer Reason / Non-Classical Logics / Relevant Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Logic with relevance and inconsistency-Priest,G Reason / Paradox / Antinomy / Influential Ideas ✓ Deny or succumb to problems, they persist-Sorensen Reason / Paradox / Aporia / Influential Ideas ✓ A science for each type of being?-Aristotle ✓ All progress starts with puzzles-Aristotle ✓ Are ultimate and basic two sciences?-Aristotle ✓ Are universals or particulars basic?-Aristotle Reason / Paradox / Paradoxes / Influential Ideas ✓ Give up a choice if a rival is eliminated?-PG ✓ Lottery Paradox says it probably won't be won-Bonjour ✓ Naming vast numbers can be paradoxical-Brown,JR ✓ Socrates died when alive or when dead!-Sext Empiricus I think therefore i am. - descartesperson_outline Reason / Paradox / Paradoxes Of Set Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ Can a barber shave all the non shavers?-Jacquette ✓ Can a powerset be greater than itself?-Friend ✓ Classes lacking self membership are odd-Russell ✓ Plural language avoids self ref paradox-Hossack Reason / Paradox / Paradox Of Achilles / Influential Ideas ✓ Where can infinite tasks come to an end?-Lowe Reason / Paradox / Paradox Of Achilles / Zeno Covers Atomic And Divisible Space/ Influential Ideas ✓ time-Devlin Reason / Paradox / Paradox Of The Liar / Influential Ideas ✓ Cretans always lie, said a Cretan ✓ Saying truly you are lying is lying-Eubulides ✓ Self reference with falsity is the problem-Read ✓ The Liar is impossible with Tarski's truth-Fisher Reason / Paradox / Paradox Of The Heap {'Sorites'} / Influential Ideas ✓ A heap of sand can't be destroyed-Eubulides ✓ Members may lack the features of the group-Aristotle ✓ No one grain could create a heap-Dummett ✓ The smallest heap has four objects-Hart,WD Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Definite Descriptions / Influential Ideas ✓ 'The King is bald' presupposes his existence-Strawson,P ✓ 'The so and so' is a definite description-Russell ✓ Quantifiers, not names, explain descriptions-Russell ✓ Reduce 'the' to terms of predicate logic-Horwich Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Logical Form / Influential Ideas ✓ 'x' does not occur in 'x does not exist'-Russell ✓ A logical language gives a word to each object-Russell ✓ Do sentence types or tokens have form?-Fine,K ✓ First order logic has a fixed language-Melia Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Logical Form / Forget Subject/ Influential Ideas ✓ predicate analysis-Frege Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Logical Form / Not Subject/Predicate, But Function/ Influential Ideas ✓ argument-Frege Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Logical Form / We Can Move Subject/ Influential Ideas ✓ predicate split-Frege Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Names / Influential Ideas ✓ A family of singular terms designates things-Rey ✓ A name's meaning is the object itself-Frege ✓ How do phrases name, if they change referent?-Evans ✓ Most names are really definite descriptions-Russell Nothing is certain except for death and taxes. -christopher bullockperson_outline Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Quantifiers / Existential Quantifier &Exist; / Influential Ideas ✓ Existential quantifiers express existence-Russell ✓ Quantifiers express quantity, not existence-McGinn ✓ Quantify over 'something', not one 'thing'-Lowe ✓ Rename the 'existential' quantifier 'partial'-McGinn Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Quantifiers / Quantifiers / Influential Ideas ✓ Aristotelian logic has two quantifiers-Aristotle ✓ Frege introduced quantifiers for generality-Frege Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Quantifiers / Universal Quantifier &Forall; / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Every' only signifies when added to a term-William of Ockham ✓ An existential quanifier defines a universal-Quine ✓ Quantification needs 'everything' and 'not'-Frege ✓ The universal quantifier concerns checkability-Friend Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Quantifiers / Unorthodox Quantifiers / Influential Ideas ✓ Boolos invented plural quantification-Boolos ✓ We need a new Intentional Quantifier-McGinn Reason / Predicate Calculus Pc / Syllogism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Equivocation' is shifting the meaning-Beall&Restall ✓ Aristotelian logic has four ingredients-Aristotle ✓ Aristotle listed nineteen valid syllogisms-Aristotle ✓ Good reasoning doesn't need syllogisms-Locke Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Boolean Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Boole aimed at an algebra of thought-Boole ✓ Boole represented syllogisms and propositions-Boole ✓ Proposition logic has three defined operators-Girle Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Completeness Of Pl / Influential Ideas ✓ All tautologies derivable, so PL is complete-Lemmon Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Propositional Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Contradictions' always differ in truth value-Lemmon ✓ Propositional logic has one inference rule-Devlin ✓ Propositional logic has three axiom schemas-Girle ✓ Sentence logic is consistent and complete-Orenstein Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Soundness Of Pl / Influential Ideas ✓ The rules get tautologies from tautologies-Lemmon ✓ Validity is preserved, so no contradictions-Hughes&Cresswell Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Tools Of Propositional Logic / Axioms Of Pl / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Or' can be defined using 'not' and 'and'-Quine ✓ Axiom system logics have three elements-Girle ✓ Axioms aim to evade all rational objection-Baggini&Fosl ✓ Axioms are true before they are selected-Orenstein Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Tools Of Propositional Logic / Axioms Of Pl / Best Known Axioms Are Whitehead/ Influential Ideas ✓ Russell-Russell&Whitehead To go fast, go alone. To go far, go together. (african proverb)person_outline Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Tools Of Propositional Logic / Basic Theorems Of Pl / Influential Ideas ✓ A conditional becomes a non conjunction-Lemmon ✓ A conjunction becomes a non conditional-Lemmon ✓ Transposition:{if P then Q}then{if ¬Q then ¬P}-Hughes&Cresswell Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Tools Of Propositional Logic / Basic Theorems Of Pl / De Morgan's Laws Switch Conjuncts/ Influential Ideas ✓ disjuncts-Lemmon Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Tools Of Propositional Logic / Basic Theorems Of Pl / Distributive Laws Switch Con / Influential Ideas ✓ dis junction-Lemmon Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Tools Of Propositional Logic / Derivation Rules Of Pl / Influential Ideas ✓ A or B, if A then C, if B then C: so C-Lemmon ✓ From either A or B, we may derive A or B-Lemmon ✓ Given A, we may derive ¬¬A-Lemmon ✓ Given A and B, we may derive A and B-Lemmon Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Tools Of Propositional Logic / Symbols Of Pl / Influential Ideas ✓ 'ι' forms definite descriptions-Forbes,G ✓ 'v' is the symbol for 'or'-Lemmon ✓ P rightarrow Q is 'P if and only if Q'-Lemmon ✓ right arrow is 'if then'-Lemmon Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Tools Of Propositional Logic / Terminology Of Pl / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Contrary' propositions are never both true-Lemmon ✓ 'Equivalent' propositions mirror their truth-Lemmon ✓ 'Scope' is marked by brackets-Lemmon ✓ 'Subcontrary' propositions aren't both false-Lemmon Reason / Propositional Logic Pl / Truth Tables / Influential Ideas ✓ Each line of a truth table is a model-Fitting&Mendelsohn ✓ The only semantics used to be truth tables-Enderton ✓ Truth tables are entirely mechanical-Lemmon ✓ Truth tables are good for showing invalidity-Lemmon Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Choice / Influential Ideas ✓ A function has a value for every member set-Shapiro ✓ Axiom of Choice is necessary but dodgy-Feferman&Feferman ✓ Cardinality of sets needs Choice-Dummett ✓ Choice and set theory are consistent-Feferman&Feferman Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Comprehension Scheme / Influential Ideas ✓ Comprehension: each definition gives a set-Kunen Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Constructibility V = L / Influential Ideas ✓ Constructibility: all sets are constructible-Kunen ✓ Quine controversially prefers V=L-Quine ✓ The relative consistency of V=L is proved-Putnam ✓ V = L just says all sets are constructible-Putnam Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Existence / Influential Ideas ✓ Equal sets have same elements-Clegg ✓ Existence: universe non void-Kunen ✓ Extensionality is simple, unique, expressive-Maddy ✓ Extensionality: members determine sets-Kunen To go fast, go alone. To go far, go together. (african proverb)person_outline Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Foundation / Influential Ideas ✓ Foundation: all sets are founded on something-Kunen ✓ Zermelo gave up Foundation-Zermelo Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Infinity / Influential Ideas ✓ Real numbers require infinite sets-Maddy ✓ The axiom of infinity is not a truth of logic-Kneale,W and M ✓ The Axiom of Infinity is Cantor's breakthrough-Maddy ✓ There is a set of all successors-Clegg Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Pairing / Influential Ideas ✓ Axiom of Pairing: a set contains any two sets-George&Velleman ✓ Pairing {} seems fairly obvious-Zermelo ✓ Pairing: any two entities are a set-Kunen ✓ Two sets always make up a third set-Clegg Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Powers / Influential Ideas ✓ All subsets form a new powerset-Clegg ✓ Power: all the subsets make a set-Kunen ✓ The continuum needs Power Set-Maddy Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Replacement / Influential Ideas ✓ Replacement proved necessary later on-Maddy ✓ Replacement: bijections make sets-Kunen Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Separation / Influential Ideas ✓ Separation makes sets approach contradiction-Zermelo Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Specification / Influential Ideas ✓ Conditions always produce sets-Clegg Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axiom Of Unions / Influential Ideas ✓ All occurring elements for their own set-Clegg ✓ Union {} seems fairly obvious-Cantor ✓ Union: members of members are a set-Kunen Reason / Set Theory St / Axioms For Sets / Axioms For Sets / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Set' and 'member' are undefined axioms-Zermelo ✓ Continuum size needs new axioms-Maddy ✓ Known objects must make a set-Zalabardo ✓ Limitation of Size is a vague intuition-Maddy Reason / Set Theory St / Continuum Hypothesis / Influential Ideas ✓ Continuum plus set theory is consistent-Clegg ✓ Gap between aleph null and the continuum-Chihara ✓ Gap between naturals and reals?-Horsten ✓ No sets between naturals and reals?-Shapiro Reason / Set Theory St / Existence Of Sets / Influential Ideas ✓ Are there sets as well as Cheerios-Boolos ✓ Can two entities be several different sets?-Inwagen ✓ Classes are just logical fictions-Russell ✓ Classes are simply logical constructions-Russell Necessity is the mother of invention. -platoperson_outline Reason / Set Theory St / Iterative Conception / Influential Ideas ✓ Derive sets from their dependence-Potter ✓ Set creation never terminates-Fine,K ✓ Iterate sets upwards from the empty set-Brown,JR ✓ Iterative sets appear at a 'stage'-Maddy Reason / Set Theory St / Mechanics Of Set Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ can be reduced to {{x},{x,y}}-Dummett ✓ The empty set 'phi' is a subset of every set-Priest,G Reason / Set Theory St / Mechanics Of Set Theory / Symbols Of St / Influential Ideas ✓ 'dom R' is the objects having a relation-Enderton ✓ 'fld R' is all the objects related-Enderton ✓ 'F{x}' is the unique value of F at x-Enderton ✓ 'ran R' is the objects related to-Enderton Reason / Set Theory St / Mechanics Of Set Theory / Terminology Of St / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Partial ordering' is antisymmetric-Zalabardo ✓ 'Symmetric' relations go in both directions-Enderton ✓ 'Trichotomy' requires relations or identity-Enderton ✓ 'Induction' retains properties in construction-Priest,G Reason / Set Theory St / Natural Sets / Influential Ideas ✓ Everybody can spot natural classes-Quinton ✓ Flocks of birds are not sets-Brown,JR ✓ Numbers are not based on physical facts-Frege ✓ Only meaningful predicates have sets-Russell Reason / Set Theory St / Naïve Conception / Influential Ideas ✓ A class is the extension of a concept-Frege ✓ A set is the extension of a predicate-Frege ✓ Naïve sets hit Russell's Paradox-Boolos ✓ Only existing sets now have conditions-Brown,JR Reason / Set Theory St / Set Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Impure' sets have a concrete member-Jubien ✓ is defined as the set {{x},{x,y}}-Gupta ✓ A 'set' is a mathematically well behaved class-Hodges,W ✓ A non ordered aggregate I call a 'set'-Bolzano Reason / Set Theory St / Types Of Set / Empty {Null} Set / Influential Ideas ✓ A set can be null, but not a class-Lewis ✓ Empty concepts make the empty class-Frege ✓ Empty set is the extension of an empty concept-Frege ✓ No null set if numbering needs 'units'-Tait Reason / Set Theory St / Types Of Set / Equivalence Classes / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Equivalence': reflexive,symmetric,transitive-Enderton ✓ Equivalence aims to capture similarity-Lipschutz ✓ Equivalence classes produce new objects-Frege ✓ Equivalence is a common method of grouping-George&Velleman Reason / Set Theory St / Types Of Set / Infinite Sets / Influential Ideas ✓ Any set is enlargeable by its powerset-Clegg ✓ Cantor removed contradictions with clarity-Cantor ✓ Continuum is powerset of the integers-Clegg ✓ We understand some statements about all sets-Putnam Reason / Set Theory St / Types Of Set / Unit {Singleton} Set / Influential Ideas ✓ Are all singletons exact intrinsic duplicates?-Lewis ✓ Are singletons the same as elements?-Lewis ✓ How can a singleton be a collection?-Szabó ✓ How do unit sets differ from one another?-Chihara Every man dies. Not every man really lives. -william wallaceperson_outline Reason / Styles Of Reason / Definition / Contextual Definition / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Implicit definitions' just describe relations-Shapiro ✓ Can contextual definition define numbers?-Wright,C ✓ Conceptual priority then definition-Frege ✓ Contextual definition can replace expressions-Dummett Reason / Styles Of Reason / Definition / Definitions / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Creative definitions' don't presume objects-Fine,K ✓ 'Water' is a name, with no definition-Schwartz ✓ A thing is its purpose-Aristotle ✓ Correct definition are perfect substitutes-Ducasse Reason / Styles Of Reason / Definition / Genus And Differentia / Influential Ideas ✓ Animal the genus, rational the difference-Oderberg ✓ Definition differs from individuation-Oderberg ✓ Definition is an account of differentiae-Aristotle ✓ Definitions are what sort things-Aquinas Reason / Styles Of Reason / Definition / Genus And Differentia / Definition By Division: Genus/ Influential Ideas ✓ differentiae-Aristotle Reason / Styles Of Reason / Definition / Impredicative Definition / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Impredicative' definitions seem circular-Shapiro ✓ 'Impredicative' refers to the definiens itself-George&Velleman ✓ Ordinary maths uses impredicative definitions-Gödel ✓ Predicative definitions refer to externals-Horsten Reason / Styles Of Reason / Definition / Necessary/Sufficient / Influential Ideas ✓ 'If' is sufficient, 'only if' is necessary-Engel ✓ Definitions often necessary, not sufficient-Fodor ✓ Seeing causes is not a passive mental act-Lockwood ✓ If p then q, then p suff for q, q nec for p-Scruton Reason / Styles Of Reason / Definition / Ostensive Definition / Influential Ideas ✓ Define the complex, point to the simple-Frege ✓ Ostensive definition looks simple but isn't-Gupta ✓ Ostensive definitions point to an object-Mautner Reason / Styles Of Reason / Definition / Real Definition / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Real' definitions give essences-Mautner ✓ A definition must be of something primary-Aristotle ✓ Aristotelian definitions are causal-Aristotle ✓ Aristotelian definitions are hierarchical-Fine,K Reason / Styles Of Reason / Definition / Recursive Definition / Influential Ideas ✓ Recursive definition links instances-Mautner Reason / Styles Of Reason / Definition / Stipulative Definition / Influential Ideas ✓ Do definitions refer to or create objects?-Friend ✓ Only stipulative definitions in maths?-Frege ✓ Stipulative definition decides a meaning-Mautner ✓ Stipulative definition of new meanings-Gupta Reason / Styles Of Reason / Dialectic / Influential Ideas ✓ Being and nothing are resolved in becoming-Hegel ✓ Dialectic for unity, analysis for parts-Baggini&Fosl ✓ Dialectic is part of the sceptical method-Kant ✓ Dialectic is short questions and answers-Diog Laertius The unexamined life is not worth living. -socratesperson_outline Reason / Styles Of Reason / Elenchus / Influential Ideas ✓ Always say what you believe-Plato ✓ Each stage of an argument needs agreement-Socrates ✓ For Socrates the elenchus decides moral truth-Vlastos ✓ Socratic debate needs asserted premises-Vlastos Reason / Styles Of Reason / Eristic / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Eris' was the divinity of conflict-Deleuze&Guattari ✓ Competitive argument has five targets-Aristotle ✓ Dialectic requires analysis-Plato ✓ Eristic is combative, dialectic co operative-Plato Reason / Theory Of Logic / Basic Concepts Of Logic / Contradiction / Influential Ideas ✓ Contradicters do not discuss the same thing-Prodicus ✓ Contradiction does not reveal true or false-Pascal ✓ Contradictions are false, their opposites true-Leibniz ✓ Contradictions are formal and informal-Rumfitt Reason / Theory Of Logic / Basic Concepts Of Logic / Deductive Consequence |- / Influential Ideas ✓ | is deduction; |= is both true in a model-Rossberg Reason / Theory Of Logic / Basic Concepts Of Logic / Identity In Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Non contradiction & excluded mid need identity-McGinn ✓ Property attributions assume identity-McGinn ✓ Quantification still complete with identity-Quine ✓ Identity is a single undefined basic relation-McGinn Reason / Theory Of Logic / Basic Concepts Of Logic / Logical Consequence / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Material consequence' involves content-Beall&Restall ✓ Arbitrary proof is thus universal-Aristotle ✓ Consequence by proof or good models-Beall&Restall ✓ Consequence is semantic or deductive-Shapiro Reason / Theory Of Logic / Basic Concepts Of Logic / Semantic Consequence |= / Influential Ideas ✓ A logical consequence is always valid-Tarski ✓ Consequence: follows in all models-Tarski ✓ Gamma |= phi if it always follows-Zalabardo ✓ Logical consequence is necessary or relative-Beall&Restall Reason / Theory Of Logic / Basic Concepts Of Logic / Theories In Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ A 'theorem' is a sentence derived from axioms-Smith,P ✓ Theories have infinite premisses-Read Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Functions In Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ A 'partial function' maps only some elements-Smith,P ✓ A functions 'fixed point' is self mapping-Smith,P ✓ Functions are arbitrary correspondences-Shapiro ✓ The 'range' is the values a function creates-Smith,P Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Functions In Logic / 'Injective/ Influential Ideas ✓ to ' functions output uniquely-Smith,P Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Functions In Logic / 'Surjective/ Influential Ideas ✓ onto' functions create the lot-Smith,P Eighty percent of success is showing up. -woody allenperson_outline Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Logical Connectives / Influential Ideas ✓ 'And' and 'not' are non referring terms-Wittgenstein ✓ A truth table is what defines 'and'-Fodor ✓ Classical connectives aren't ordinary language-Shapiro ✓ Fix 'and' by truth tables, or by rules?-Forbes,G Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Logical Constants / Influential Ideas ✓ Constants work like proper names-Bach Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Plural Quantification / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Some critics admire only one another' how?-Linnebo ✓ A plural comprehension principle is acceptable-Hossack ✓ Are plural quantifiers just of classes?-Shapiro ✓ Complex facts without complex things-Hossack Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Predicates In Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Comprehension: conditional properties-Smith,P ✓ Predicates are functions, not properties-Frege ✓ Predicates name functions which map objects-Frege ✓ Subject predicate, hence substance properties-Aristotle Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Quantification / Influential Ideas ✓ 'All' and 'Exist' make 'and' and 'or' infinite-Tharp ✓ A quantifier is a second level predicate-Frege ✓ Don't quantify into opaque contexts-Quine ✓ Finite quantification can be eliminated-Quine Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Relations In Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Principia' added a new theory of relations-Russell&Whitehead ✓ Maths covers relations with ordered pairs-Chihara ✓ Relations are functions with two arguments-Frege ✓ Relations are second order from tropes-Campbell,K Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Substitutional Quantification / Influential Ideas ✓ Could a true universal sentence be refuted? ✓ No objects, just substitution places ✓ Quine has softened on substitutional quant-Quine ✓ Reference matters, or why replace it?-Quine Reason / Theory Of Logic / Components Of Logic / Variables / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Corner quotes' mean the content of-Quine ✓ 'Object' is a pseudo concept use x-Wittgenstein ✓ Non count variables have 'some value'-Laycock ✓ Ontology should focus on claims of existence-Quine Reason / Theory Of Logic / Features Of Logics / Compactness / Influential Ideas ✓ Compact theories can have infinite premisses-Read ✓ Compactness blocks infinite proofs-Read ✓ Compactness controls but limits-Read ✓ Compactness is restricting and unorthodox-Tharp Reason / Theory Of Logic / Features Of Logics / Completeness / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Complete' applies to both logics and theories-Smith,P ✓ 'Complete' means all sentences are provable-Smith,P ✓ 'Negation complete' decides every sentence-Smith,P ✓ A 'complete' theory contains either P or ¬P-George&Velleman Reason / Theory Of Logic / Features Of Logics / Consistency / Influential Ideas ✓ A nice theory can't prove its own consistency-Gödel ✓ Consistency by truth, or by non contradiction-Chihara ✓ Consistency doesn't come from its parts-Fodor ✓ Consistency is a purely syntactic property-George&Velleman I think therefore i am. - descartesperson_outline Reason / Theory Of Logic / Features Of Logics / Decidability / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Decidable' means all sentences are provable-Smith,P ✓ 'Decidable' means inclusion is provable-Enderton ✓ 'Recursion theory' concerns solvability-Feferman&Feferman ✓ Most complete theories are decidable-Smith,P Reason / Theory Of Logic / Features Of Logics / Effectiveness / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Effective' has six criteria-Smith,P Reason / Theory Of Logic / Features Of Logics / Enumerability / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Enumerable' means outputable from numbers-Smith,P ✓ Completeness implies effective enumeration-Tharp ✓ Effective enumeration won't ensure knowledge-Tharp ✓ Finite sets are largely effectively enumerable-Smith,P Reason / Theory Of Logic / Features Of Logics / Expressibility / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Expressible' is language;'captured' is axioms-Smith,P ✓ Arithmetic theorems expressible but not truths-Smith,P Reason / Theory Of Logic / Features Of Logics / Incompleteness / Influential Ideas ✓ Gentzen proved the consistency of arithmetic-Gentzen ✓ Gödel kills logicism, kills Hilbert-Smith,P ✓ Semantics are needed for incompleteness-Rossberg ✓ There are two routes to Incompleteness-Smith,P Reason / Theory Of Logic / Features Of Logics / Soundness / Influential Ideas ✓ A theory is 'sound' iff every theorem is true-Smith,P ✓ Proof is 'sound' when proof entails truth-Enderton ✓ Soundness is a semantic notion-George&Velleman ✓ Soundness seems essential to proof procedures-Tharp Reason / Theory Of Logic / Logical Models / Isomorphisms / Influential Ideas ✓ Ontology can only be 'up to isomorphism'-Shapiro ✓ The set hierarchy has maximum models-Shapiro ✓ Treat isomorphic structures as identical?-George&Velleman ✓ Unique to isomorphism is 'categorical'-Horsten Reason / Theory Of Logic / Logical Models / Löwenheim-Skolem / Influential Ideas ✓ Cantor's conceptions are illusory?-Tharp ✓ Consistent theory, then countable model-Hodges,W ✓ First order theories of sets are inadequate-Read ✓ Löweheim Skolem Theorems fail in nd order-Shapiro Reason / Theory Of Logic / Logical Models / Models / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Satisfaction' is central to model theory-Shapiro ✓ 'Structures' show objects and domains-Hodges,W ✓ A 'model' is when the axioms are all true-George&Velleman ✓ A 'model' is when the axioms are true-Feferman&Feferman Reason / Theory Of Logic / Ontology Of Logic / If-Thenism / Influential Ideas ✓ At bottom eternal truths are all conditional-Leibniz ✓ Axioms can have implications without truth-Russell ✓ Existence of objects is irrelevant to proofs-Locke ✓ Maths has truths without existence-Descartes Reason / Theory Of Logic / Ontology Of Logic / Ontology Of Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Existence and its denial are hard in logic-Bach ✓ Logic can only assert hypothetical existence-Russell ✓ Logic is about the real world-Russell ✓ Logic maps relations-Badiou Go to heaven for the climate and hell for the company. -mark twainperson_outline Reason / Theory Of Logic / Ontology Of Logic / Platonism In Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Logic is formalization, not ontology-Fisher ✓ Logic is just tautologies, not Forms-Wittgenstein ✓ Logic must involve objects, properties, truth-Jacquette Reason / Theory Of Logic / Overview Of Logic / Classical Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Classical and high order logical truth differ-Dummett ✓ Classical logic has a non empty domain-Read ✓ Classical logic is how we assess things-Kitcher ✓ Classical logical is simply defined-Jacquette Reason / Theory Of Logic / Overview Of Logic / First-Order Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Predicative' if no bound nd order variables-Linnebo ✓ A 'sentence' has no free variables-Zalabardo ✓ First order logic has some key features-Shapiro ✓ FOL is complete, but can't catch maths-Tharp Reason / Theory Of Logic / Overview Of Logic / History Of Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Boole made logic more mathematical-Boole ✓ Golden age of logic,-Devlin ✓ Logic concerns extensions, not intensions-Scruton ✓ Mathematicians must create new logic-Veblen Reason / Theory Of Logic / Overview Of Logic / Overview Of Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Implicature' from the fact of saying it-Enderton ✓ A 'natural deduction system' has no axioms-Smith,P ✓ A priori logic because we are logical-Wittgenstein ✓ All states of affairs are logically connected-Harman Reason / Theory Of Logic / Overview Of Logic / Second-Order Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Capturing arithmetic disbars nd order logic-Read ✓ Existential first order, substitutional higher ✓ First order is complete, second order isn't-Gödel ✓ Henkin semantics fits plural, not nd order-Maddy Reason / Theory Of Logic / Overview Of Logic / Value Of Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Can logic lead us to death?-Camus ✓ Deduction is about entailment not belief-Williams,M ✓ Languages filter logic from reality-Quine ✓ Logic desires a simple single viewpoint-Nietzsche Reason / Theory Of Logic / Semantics Of Logic / Extensionalism / Influential Ideas ✓ Extensional semantics is circular-Jacquette ✓ Extensionalists assume objects exist g Intensionalism-Jacquette ✓ Extensionalists can't discuss nonexistence-Jacquette ✓ Frege is intensionalist about reference-Frege Reason / Theory Of Logic / Semantics Of Logic / Formal Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ Conventionalism doesn't deny truth in logic-Boghossian ✓ Nice theories can't define their own truth-Smith,P ✓ Relations of set members shows truth-Kusch ✓ Set theory truth is formal, or interpreted-Hodes Reason / Theory Of Logic / Semantics Of Logic / Logical Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Logically true' is always true-Zalabardo ✓ Grammatical structure decides logical truth-Quine ✓ Logic of syntax, and logic of truth-Dummett ✓ Logical truth is caused by the concepts-Fine,K Reason / Theory Of Logic / Semantics Of Logic / Satisfaction / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Satisfaction' is evaluation arriving at True-Enderton ✓ 'Satisfaction' is one good truth assignment-Zalabardo ✓ A sentence is 'satisfiable' if it has a model-Shapiro ✓ Satisfies needs a structure and interpretation-Zalabardo Life is what happens while you are busy making plans. -allan saundersperson_outline Reason / Theory Of Logic / Semantics Of Logic / Semantics Of Logic / Influential Ideas ✓ Examine semantics, or build it-Zalabardo ✓ Logical interpretation won't give 'sense'-Hodes ✓ Semantics depends on instantiations-Zalabardo ✓ Syntactical and semantic view of deduction-Lowe Reason / Theory Of Logic / Semantics Of Logic / Tautological Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ Tautologies are implied by the null set-Enderton Religion / Immortality / Animal Souls / Influential Ideas ✓ Animals have souls but no consciousness-Leibniz ✓ Animals have thought and souls-Leibniz Religion / Immortality / Heaven / Influential Ideas ✓ Bliss is increased by watching damnation-Aquinas ✓ Heaven is a vast library-Johnson,P ✓ Heaven is ceasing to be disturbed-Ashvaghosha ✓ Heaven is eating fruit served by virgins-Mohammed Religion / Immortality / Hell / Influential Ideas ✓ Three gates of hell are lust, anger and greed ✓ Unbelievers shall drink boiling water-Mohammed ✓ Unbelievers will be endlessly burned-Mohammed Religion / Immortality / Immortality / Influential Ideas ✓ Aristotle's psyche is mostly mortal-Martin&Barresi ✓ Athenian dead souls go to the 'upper air'-Watson ✓ Denigrate this life, to praise the afterlife-Grayling ✓ Dual aspect monism denies immortality-Spinoza Religion / Immortality / Soul / Influential Ideas ✓ Essential natural kinds make the soul possible-Flanagan ✓ How do you distinguish two Souls?-Teichmann ✓ Mind is tiny particles that evaporate at death-Lucretius ✓ Our immortal part is awake during our dreams Religion / Language Of Religion / Religious Falsification / Influential Ideas ✓ Could anything prove God does not love us?-Flew ✓ Only evidence can prove a divine 'gardener'-Flew ✓ Open ended claims cannot be falsified-Hick Religion / Language Of Religion / Religious Meaning / Influential Ideas ✓ Commitment gives religious language meaning-Braithwaite ✓ God is neither verifiable nor falsifiable-Flew ✓ Theology is ontology through grammar-Wittgenstein Religion / Language Of Religion / Religious Verification / Influential Ideas ✓ Religion is not literally significant-Ayer ✓ Verification of religion can come after life-Hick ✓ Immortality is a vague but intelligible idea-Hick Religion / Monotheistic Religion / Bible / Influential Ideas ✓ Birth of Paul of Tarsus-PG ✓ Book of Genesis-PG ✓ Paul converted-PG ✓ Paul executed in Rome-PG Eyes are placed in front because it's more important to look ahead than back. Warren buffetperson_outline Religion / Monotheistic Religion / Zoroastrianism / Influential Ideas ✓ Most elements of religion come from Zoroaster-Watson ✓ There is one beneficent spiritual Creator-Johnson,P ✓ Zarathustra offered the first abstract god-Watson ✓ Zoroastrianism dates from about BCE-Watson Religion / Problem Of Evil / Human Error / Influential Ideas ✓ A finite judgement is bound to make errors-Descartes ✓ Human wisdom is based on divine law-Epicharmus ✓ My judgement makes no errors, if well used-Descartes ✓ Why is our mind inadequate for good living?-Gassendi Religion / Problem Of Evil / Natural Evil / Influential Ideas ✓ An omnipotent God must want human suffering-Mill ✓ By human standards nature is immoral-Mill ✓ Disasters are too chaotic to be divine justice-Mill ✓ Evil shows God lacks foreknowledge-Sext Empiricus Religion / Problem Of Evil / Problem Of Evil / Influential Ideas ✓ Evil is good when linked to all of existence-Berkeley ✓ Evil is only a problem if you expect good-Williams,B ✓ Evil won't fit with God's benevolent power-Mackie ✓ God and evil cannot be logically reconciled-Mackie Scientific Reasoning / Basis Of Science / Anomalies / Influential Ideas ✓ All theories are falsified by anomalies!-Newton Smith ✓ An anomaly like Uranus can lead to Neptune-Newton Smith ✓ Anomalies are judged by balancing alternatives-Newton Smith ✓ The truth might be bad in a law court-Plato Scientific Reasoning / Basis Of Science / Demonstration / Influential Ideas ✓ Definitions precede demonstration-Aristotle ✓ Demonstration deduces from necessities-Aristotle ✓ Demonstration is explanatory proof-Aristotle ✓ Demonstration rests on definitions-Aristotle Scientific Reasoning / Basis Of Science / Experiment / Influential Ideas ✓ Experiments are a version of normal thought-Fodor ✓ Experiments distinguish between explanations-Descartes ✓ Experiments need agreement on significance-Fodor ✓ Experts & experiments enable us to believe-Fodor Scientific Reasoning / Basis Of Science / Falsification / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Some x are y' is verifiable, not falsifiable-Baggini&Fosl ✓ A counterexample refutes necessary truth-Aristotle ✓ Falsification is the hallmark of science-Popper ✓ Nothing can falsify a statistical hypothesis-Bird Scientific Reasoning / Basis Of Science / Observation / Influential Ideas ✓ Even colour words are theory laden-Newton Smith ✓ Theory and observation are circular-Comte ✓ Investigation needs preconceptions-Sext Empiricus ✓ It needs theory to see electrons-Williams,M Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Best Explanation / Influential Ideas ✓ Abduction is best explanation using wide data-Rey ✓ Abduction is factual, so must be realist-Bird ✓ Belief in reality makes sense of experience-Russell ✓ Best explanation has hidden values-Fraassen Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Causal Explanation / Influential Ideas ✓ Aim at causes, principles and elements-Aristotle ✓ All explanation implies causal explanation-Sanford ✓ Causes can explain without laws-Psillos ✓ Dispositional or causal functions in biology-Leuridan To go fast, go alone. To go far, go together. (african proverb)person_outline Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Evidence / Influential Ideas ✓ Evidence is not a special type of belief-Harman ✓ Only deduction is true evidence-Hacking ✓ Things provide evidence, instead of people-Hacking ✓ Imaginary cases reveal our beliefs-Parfit Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Explaining People / Influential Ideas ✓ Explain nature, but only clarify society-Weber ✓ Explain people rationally, not causally-Lowe ✓ Sciences explain, humanities understand-Dilthey Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Explanation / Influential Ideas ✓ Are all scientific explanations arguments?-Salmon ✓ Causal explanation must have one direction-Lowe ✓ Components of explanations are objective-Bird ✓ Demonstration is deduction with understanding-Damon of Ath Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Explanation By Mechanism / Influential Ideas ✓ Does the first occurrence have a function?-Salmon ✓ Explanations reveal mechanisms-Salmon ✓ Mechanisms need regularity models-Leuridan ✓ Quantum explanations will be by mechanism-Salmon Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Lawlike Explanation / Influential Ideas ✓ A good explanation competes with others-Bird ✓ Chance is inexplicable, lacking regularities-Aristotle ✓ Explanation and generality are linked-Aristotle ✓ Explanation needs laws as well as causes-Psillos Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Pragmatic Explanation / Influential Ideas ✓ Both people and facts explain things-Bird ✓ Explanation depends totally on the questioner-Psillos ✓ Explanation is information as answer-Fraassen ✓ Explanations remove surprise-Psillos Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Prediction / Influential Ideas ✓ Barometers predict but don't explain-Psillos ✓ Explanation and prediction are related-Bird ✓ Explanation does not entail prediction-Flanagan ✓ Past events are explained without prediction-Psillos Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Probabilistic Explanation / Influential Ideas ✓ Can unlikely events be explained?-Salmon ✓ Probability is propensity, not frequency-Salmon ✓ Some explanation increases the likelihood-Bird ✓ We need relevance, not high probability-Salmon Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Reductive Explanation / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Bridge laws' are a weaker reductionism-Kirk,R ✓ A key exists at many levels of abstraction-Lycan ✓ Explain by causes, or by constitution-Stanford ✓ Explanation can be by decomposition-Heil Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Types Of Explanation / Influential Ideas ✓ All theories place things in general groups-Aristotle ✓ Aristotelian explanations are facts-Aristotle ✓ Contrastive explanations pick one out-Bird ✓ Explain by facts, or reports of facts-Salmon Scientific Reasoning / Explanation / Ultimate Explanations / Influential Ideas ✓ Efficient and final causes both fully explain-Leibniz ✓ There are no final explanations-Popper ✓ Why must explanation come to an end?-Rey You talking to me? -taxi driverperson_outline Scientific Reasoning / Induction / Induction / Influential Ideas ✓ Brains are essentially anticipation machines-Dennett ✓ Can we justify belief in uniformity of nature?-Baggini&Fosl ✓ Can we prove general future truths?-Ayer ✓ Enumeration universal; statistical proportions-Pollock&Cruz Scientific Reasoning / Induction / Limits Of Induction / Influential Ideas ✓ Chickens are surprised when farmers kill them-Russell ✓ Custom, not reason, learns from experience-Hume ✓ Don't infer generalisations from particulars-Philodemus ✓ Even animals learn from experience-Hume Scientific Reasoning / Induction / Paradoxes Of Induction / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Grue' is not a colour Bayes' Theorem-Milsted ✓ Any conclusion can be drawn if we allow 'grue'-Bird ✓ Can Bayesianism solve the induction problems?-Bird ✓ Emeralds are instrinsically green-Ellis Scientific Reasoning / Induction / Reason In Induction / Influential Ideas ✓ All reasoning is inductive-Harman ✓ Good induction needs no available defeaters-Salmon ✓ Hume just shows induction isn't deduction-Williams,M ✓ Premises can support without entailing-Pollock&Cruz Scientific Reasoning / Scientific Theories / Commensurability / Influential Ideas ✓ Believe all the incommensurable theories!-Newton Smith ✓ Describable notions aren't incommensurable-Putnam ✓ Descriptive reference gives incommensurability-Rowlands ✓ Maybe goods are comparable by incommensurable-Ross Scientific Reasoning / Scientific Theories / Paradigm / Influential Ideas ✓ Science is a feature of certain languages-Whorf ✓ Superior concepts expand our awareness-Deleuze&Guattari Scientific Reasoning / Scientific Theories / Scientific Theory / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Heat is molecular motion' is necessarily true-Kripke ✓ Complex relativity ousted simpler Newton-Bird ✓ Does it matter whether a theory is scientific?-Newton Smith ✓ Don't just describe things; explain them-Ellis Scientific Reasoning / Scientific Theories / Theory Holism / Influential Ideas ✓ Meanings of terms depend on whole theories C Explanation-Rorty ✓ Verify all language together, not sentences-Quine Society / Elements / Culture / Influential Ideas ✓ Culture and civilization do not coincide-Nietzsche ✓ Human cultures don't differ very much-Williamson ✓ Man without society is just another animal-Rorty Society / Elements / Education / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Getting it right' implies a teacher-Davidson ✓ Awareness of ignorance precedes learning-Frege ✓ Books are endless, and study is wearisome ✓ Child rearing must think about old age-Joubert Society / Elements / Law / Legal Positivism / Influential Ideas ✓ Just self preservation not complex natural law-Grotius ✓ Law is merely a form or procedure-Hobbes ✓ No crime or punishment without a law-Roman law Don’t cry because it’s over, smile because it happened. person_outline Society / Principles / Social Principles / Influential Ideas ✓ Consciousness enslaves men or unites them-Marx&Engels ✓ Foucault denies power is ever benign-Foucault ✓ Rational people live in harmony-Spinoza ✓ Society depends on fair exchange-Aristotle Society / Structure / Alienation / Influential Ideas ✓ Non voluntary activity alienates and enslaves-Marx&Engels ✓ Is 'alienation' still applicable?-Svendsen Society / Structure / Guardians / Influential Ideas ✓ Philosophers should run a society-Plato ✓ Pleasure can be bad, so it isn't the Good-Plato ✓ The most able people avoid politics-Confucius Society / Structure / Marxism / Influential Ideas ✓ Communism abolishes market power-Marx&Engels ✓ Communism aims to abolish bourgeois property-Marx&Engels ✓ Control material production and control ideas-Marx&Engels ✓ Modern government is for the bourgeoisie-Marx&Engels Society / Structure / Social Structure / Influential Ideas ✓ Any constitution will last for a short time-Aristotle ✓ Constitutions need democracy and authority-Zeno of Citium ✓ States are natural, not human inventions-Aristotle ✓ There are four types of constitution-Aristotle Thinkers Since 1850 / Existentialists / Camus / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Camus-PG ✓ Camus's 'Myth of Sisyphus'-PG ✓ death of Camus-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Existentialists / Existentialists / Influential Ideas ✓ De Beauvoir's 'Second Sex'-PG ✓ Merleau Ponty's 'Phenomenology'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Existentialists / Heidegger / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Heidegger-PG ✓ death of Heidegger-PG ✓ Heidegger's 'Being and Time'-PG ✓ Heidegger a professor at Marburg-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Existentialists / Kierkegaard / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Kierkegaard-PG ✓ death of Kierkegaard-PG ✓ he studies Hegel-PG ✓ lives quietly in Copenhagen-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Existentialists / Nietzsche / Influential Ideas ✓ 'If you're aristocratic,' said Nietzsche-Summers ✓ birth of Nietzsche-PG ✓ death of Nietzsche-PG ✓ Nietzsche's 'Thus Spake Zarathustra'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Existentialists / Sartre / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Sartre-PG ✓ death of Sartre-PG ✓ Sartre's 'Being and Nothingness'-PG ✓ Sartre's 'Existentialism is a Humanism'-PG Believe you can and you’re halfway there. -theodore rooseveltperson_outline Thinkers Since 1850 / Later Empiricists / Ayer / Influential Ideas ✓ Ayer's 'Language Truth and Logic'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Later Empiricists / Carnap / Influential Ideas ✓ Carnap goes to Chicago-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Later Empiricists / Empiricists / Influential Ideas ✓ Comte's publishes on positivism-PG ✓ Freud develops his theories-PG ✓ Sidgwick's 'Methods of Ethics'-PG ✓ T H Huxley first proposed epiphenomenalism-Huxley Thinkers Since 1850 / Later Empiricists / G E Moore / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Nature of Judgement' Moore's best paper-Monk ✓ Moore is a utilitarian-MacIntyre ✓ Moore looks simple, but is very subtle-Cartwright,R ✓ Moore rejected idealism in-Moore,GE Thinkers Since 1850 / Later Empiricists / Mill / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Mill-PG ✓ death of Mill-PG ✓ Mill's 'System of Logic'-PG ✓ Mill's 'Utilitarianism'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Later Empiricists / Russell / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Russell-PG ✓ death of Russell-PG ✓ Russell's 'History of Western Phil'-PG ✓ Russell's 'Principia Mathematica'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Later Empiricists / Ryle / Influential Ideas ✓ Ryle's 'Concept of Mind'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Armstrong / Influential Ideas ✓ Causality is the key to mind, not dispositions-Armstrong ✓ Mental states are physical states-Armstrong Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Davidson / Influential Ideas ✓ Davidson's 'Mental Events'-PG ✓ Davidson defends token physicalism-Davidson Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Dennett / Influential Ideas ✓ Dennett's 'Consciousness Explained'-PG ✓ Dennett aims at elimination by reduction-Dennett ✓ Dennett is an instrumental eliminativist-Dennett ✓ Dennett now denies 'instrumentalism'-Dennett Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Fodor / Influential Ideas ✓ Fodor particularly inspired by Chomsky-Putnam Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didn’t do than by the ones you did do. -mark twainperson_outline Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Frege / Influential Ideas ✓ Frege's career has three periods-PG ✓ Frege's middle period:-Dummett ✓ Frege answered problems linguistically-Dummett ✓ Frege followed Bolzano's anti intuition-Dummett Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Kripke / Influential Ideas ✓ Kripke's 'Naming and Necessity-PG ✓ Kripke has made essentialism respectable-Ellis ✓ Kripkenstein is an instrumental eliminativist-Kripke Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Kuhn / Influential Ideas ✓ Kuhn's 'Structure of Sci Revolutions'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Lewis / Influential Ideas ✓ Lewis's 'Plurality of Worlds'-PG ✓ Lewis maintained type type identity theory-Lewis Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Macintyre / Influential Ideas ✓ MacIntyre's 'After Virtue'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Mcdowell / Influential Ideas ✓ McDowell is a direct realist-Kusch ✓ McDowell is a moral intuitionist-McDowell Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Modern Analytical / Influential Ideas ✓ Chalmers 'Conscious Mind'-PG ✓ death of Ramsey at-PG ✓ Moore's 'Principia Ethica'-PG ✓ A Social Turn has followed the Linguistic Turn-O'Grady Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Nagel / Influential Ideas ✓ Nagel's 'What's it like to be a bat?'-PG ✓ Nagel is a moral intuitionist-Nagel ✓ Nagel is open to panpsychism-Nagel ✓ I am drawn to a form of rationalism-Nagel Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Nozick / Influential Ideas ✓ Nozick's 'Anarchy State and Utopia'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Parfit / Influential Ideas ✓ Parfit's 'Reasons and Persons'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Popper / Influential Ideas ✓ Popper's 'Logic of Scientific Discovery'-PG We don't see things as they are, we see them as we are. - anais ninperson_outline Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Putnam / Influential Ideas ✓ Putnam's 'Meaning of Meaning'-PG ✓ Putnam realist, then anti realist, then middle-Putnam ✓ Students add a subscript date to 'Putnam'-Burgess&Rosen Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Quine / Influential Ideas ✓ Quine's 'Two Dogmas of Empiricism'-PG ✓ Quine's 'Word and Object'-PG ✓ Deviant beliefs, or mistranslation-O'Grady ✓ First order logic and set theory are enough-Quine Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Rawls / Influential Ideas ✓ Rawls's 'Theory of Justice'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Searle / Influential Ideas ✓ Searle's 'Rediscovery of the Mind'-PG ✓ Searle believes in the Identity Theory-Searle ✓ Searle looks like a property dualist-Searle Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Analytical / Wittgenstein / Wittgenstein The Man / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Tractatus' has corresondence truth-O'Grady ✓ 'Tractatus' is great anti philosophy-Badiou ✓ birth of Wittgenstein-PG ✓ death of Wittgenstein-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Continental / Derrida / Influential Ideas ✓ My texts are not philosophical-Derrida ✓ Truth talk is just metaphor-Derrida Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Continental / Husserl / Influential Ideas ✓ Husserl's 'Logical Investigations'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Continental / Modern Continental / Influential Ideas ✓ French return to Hegel, Nietzsche or Marx-Critchley Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Mathematicians / Bolzano / Influential Ideas ✓ Bolzano reduces geometry to arithmetic-Brown,JR Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Mathematicians / Cantor / Influential Ideas ✓ We'll never leave Cantor's paradise-Hilbert Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Mathematicians / Gödel / Influential Ideas ✓ Gödel's 'Incompleteness' F Modern Continental-PG It is always darkest just before the dawn. -thomas fullerperson_outline Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Mathematicians / Hilbert / Influential Ideas ✓ Hilbert was the great formalist in maths-Brown,JR Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Mathematicians / Tarski / Influential Ideas ✓ I am a deeply convinced nominalist-Tarski Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Scientists / Darwin / Influential Ideas ✓ Darwin 'Origin of the Species'-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Modern Scientists / Einstein / Influential Ideas ✓ Special relativity was operationalist-Putnam ✓ I do not believe in a personal God-Einstein Thinkers Since 1850 / Pragmatists / Dewey / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Dewey-PG ✓ death of Dewey-PG ✓ Dewey at Columbia-PG ✓ Dewey professor in Chicago-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Pragmatists / James / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of James-PG ✓ death of James-PG ✓ James's 'Principles of Psychology'-PG ✓ James gets medical degree-PG Thinkers Since 1850 / Pragmatists / Peirce / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Peirce-PG ✓ collected Peirce published-PG ✓ Peirce joined coastal survey-PG ✓ Peirce taught at Johns Hopkins-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Atomists / Democritus / Influential Ideas ✓ Democritus thought all human affairs absurd-Democritus ✓ Plato wished to burn the works of Democritus-Plato Thinkers To 200 Ce / Cynics / Cynics / Influential Ideas ✓ Aim to eliminate desire, like the gods-Diog Laertius ✓ Cynics are disappointed moralits-Fogelin Thinkers To 200 Ce / Cynics / Diogenes Of Sinope / Influential Ideas ✓ Diogenes lives in a barrel in Athens-PG ✓ A plucked cock fits Plato's definition of man-Diogenes of Sin ✓ Diogenes claimed to be a citizen of the world-Diogenes of Sin ✓ Diogenes masturbated in public-Chrysippus Thinkers To 200 Ce / Cyrenaics / Cyrenaics / Influential Ideas ✓ Cyrenaic school closed-PG ✓ Cyrenaic school founded-PG ✓ Aim at high pleasure, but it isn't happiness-Annas ✓ Pleasure is either a motion, or a condition-Diog Laertius That which does not kill us makes us stronger. -friedrich nietzscheperson_outline Thinkers To 200 Ce / Early Christians / Augustine / Influential Ideas ✓ Augustine a Manichean-PG ✓ Augustine converts to Christianity-PG ✓ Augustine returns to Carthage-PG ✓ Augustine studies in Rome-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Early Christians / Early Christians / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Jesus-PG ✓ Jesus executed-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Early Christians / Origen / Influential Ideas ✓ Origen castrated himself-Grayling Thinkers To 200 Ce / Early Naturalists / Anaximander / Influential Ideas ✓ Anaximander in Miletus-PG ✓ Anaximander wrote the first philosophy book-Bodnár Thinkers To 200 Ce / Early Naturalists / Diogenes Of Apollonia / Influential Ideas ✓ Diogenes of Apollonia was last early scientist-Diogenes of Apoll Thinkers To 200 Ce / Early Naturalists / Thales / Influential Ideas ✓ Thales predicts an eclipse-PG ✓ Thales was first to think reality intelligible-Roochnik Thinkers To 200 Ce / Early Scientists / Copernicus / Influential Ideas ✓ Copernicus's 'Revolution of Spheres'-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Early Scientists / Galileo / Influential Ideas ✓ condemnation of Galileo-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Early Scientists / Kepler / Influential Ideas ✓ Kepler's Starry Messenger'-PG ✓ Kepler assists Brahe-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Early Scientists / Newton / Influential Ideas ✓ Newton's 'Principia'-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Eleatics / Melissus / Influential Ideas ✓ Melissus wins naval victory-PG Imagination is more important than knowledge. -albert einsteinperson_outline Thinkers To 200 Ce / Eleatics / Parmenides / Influential Ideas ✓ Parmenides and Zeno in Athens-PG ✓ Parmenides was a profound and noble man-Plato Thinkers To 200 Ce / Eleatics / Zeno Of Elea / Influential Ideas ✓ They say Zeno of Elea was tortured to death-Cicero ✓ Zeno's achievement was to state the problems-Russell Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Berkeley / Influential Ideas ✓ became a bishop in Ireland-PG ✓ became a fellow at Dublin-PG ✓ Berkeley's 'Three Dialogues'-PG ✓ Berkeley died in Oxford-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Descartes / Descartes The Man / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Descartes-PG ✓ Descartes's 'Discourse on Method'-PG ✓ Descartes's 'Meditations'-PG ✓ Descartes's revelations at Ulm-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Enlightenment / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Novum Organum' by Bacon-PG ✓ 'Port Royal Logic'-PG ✓ Bayle's 'Dictionary'-PG ✓ Chancellor Bacon impeached-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Gassendi / Influential Ideas ✓ Gassendi founded empiricism-Hacking Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Hume / Influential Ideas ✓ aide to a general-PG ✓ began publishing 'History'-PG ✓ birth of David Hume-PG ✓ brought Rousseau to England-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Kant / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Kant-PG ✓ death of Kant-PG ✓ Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason'-PG ✓ Kant a professor-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Leibniz / Leibniz Development / Influential Ideas ✓ resistance shifted to matter-Garber ✓ Leibniz has no 'considered view'-Garber ✓ Young Leibniz was a Hobbesian-Garber Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Leibniz / Leibniz Texts / Influential Ideas ✓ Philosophy texts to published-Garber Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Leibniz / Leibniz The Man / Influential Ideas ✓ death of Leibniz-PG ✓ Leibniz born-PG ✓ Leibniz in Mainz-PG ✓ Leibniz invents calculus-PG You’ve gotta dance like there’s nobody watching, love like you’ll never be hurt, sing like there’s nobody listening, and live like it’s heaven on earth. -william w. Purkeyperson_outline Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Locke / Influential Ideas ✓ brings works to England-PG ✓ Locke 'Essay'-PG ✓ Locke 'Second Treatise'-PG ✓ Locke born-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Reid / Influential Ideas ✓ Reid's 'Essays'-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Romanticism / Influential Ideas ✓ Romanticism is the West's greatest shift-Berlin Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Rousseau / Influential Ideas ✓ Rousseau's 'Social Contract'-PG ✓ Rousseau visits England-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Enlightenment / Spinoza / Spinoza The Man / Influential Ideas ✓ he settles in The Hague-PG ✓ meets Leibniz-PG ✓ Spinoza's 'Tractatus'-PG ✓ Spinoza born-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Epicureans / Epicureans / Influential Ideas ✓ All the best Romans were Epicureans-Nietzsche Thinkers To 200 Ce / Epicureans / Epicurus / Influential Ideas ✓ Epicurus died-PG ✓ Epicurus founded the Garden-PG ✓ Epicurus denied knowledge to save morality-Nietzsche ✓ Epicurus followed the ideas of Democritus-Epicurus Thinkers To 200 Ce / Epicureans / Lucretius / Influential Ideas ✓ Lucretius's 'On the Nature of the Cosmos'-PG ✓ Lucretius was rediscovered in-Grayling Thinkers To 200 Ce / Historical Periods / Eastern Thinkers / Influential Ideas ✓ 'The Upanishads'-PG ✓ birth of Confucius-PG ✓ birth of the Buddha-PG ✓ Chuang Tzu's 'Book'-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Historical Periods / Greeks / Greeks / Influential Ideas ✓ Greeks have no notion of obligation or duty-Berlin ✓ Greeks try to merge human and divine-Johnson,P Thinkers To 200 Ce / Historical Periods / Greeks / Greek To English Glossary / Influential Ideas ✓ Agathon: good-PG ✓ Aisthesis: perception-PG ✓ Aitia: cause, explanation-PG ✓ Akrasia: lack of control, weakness of will-PG The unexamined life is not worth living. -socratesperson_outline Thinkers To 200 Ce / Historical Periods / Hellenism / Influential Ideas ✓ Euclid's 'Elements'-PG ✓ Isocrates opens first Athens school-PG ✓ City for early Greeks, self for later Greeks-Foucault Thinkers To 200 Ce / Historical Periods / Late Greeks / Influential Ideas ✓ Hypatia murdered by mob-PG ✓ Marcus establishes Athens schools-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Idealists / Hegel / Influential Ideas ✓ became a professor at Heidelberg-PG ✓ birth of Hegel-PG ✓ head of a school in Nuremberg-PG ✓ Hegel's 'Phenomenology of Spirit'-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Idealists / Schopenhauer / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Schopenhauer-PG ✓ death of Schopenhauer-PG ✓ Schopenhauer's 'World as Will and Idea'-PG ✓ Schopenhauer in France and Britain-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Literature / Aeschylus / Influential Ideas ✓ Aeschylus was a Pythagorean-Cicero Thinkers To 200 Ce / Literature / Euripides / Influential Ideas ✓ Medea is reason v passion-Annas Thinkers To 200 Ce / Literature / Homer / Influential Ideas ✓ Homer's poems are a guide to goodness-Xenophon ✓ Homer doesn't distinguish mind from body-Williams,B Thinkers To 200 Ce / Medievals / Abelard / Influential Ideas ✓ Abelard's work condemned-PG ✓ Abelard abbot of St Gildas-PG ✓ Abelard avoids assassination-PG ✓ Abelard castrated as punishment-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Medievals / Aquinas / Influential Ideas ✓ Aquinas always on the move-PG ✓ Aquinas became a monk-PG ✓ Aquinas becomes Dominican's theology-PG ✓ Aquinas begins 'Summa Theologica'-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Medievals / Averroes {Ibn Rushd} / Influential Ideas ✓ Averroes's Aristotelian commentaries-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Medievals / Avicenna {Abu Ibn Sina} / Influential Ideas ✓ Avicenna's 'The Healing'-PG ✓ Avicenna studies Aristotle-PG That which does not kill us makes us stronger. -friedrich nietzscheperson_outline Thinkers To 200 Ce / Medievals / Boethius / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Boethius-PG ✓ Boethius's 'Consolations of Philosophy'-PG ✓ Boethius a principle minister in Rome-PG ✓ Boethius executed-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Medievals / Medievals / Influential Ideas ✓ Al Farabi writing-PG ✓ Algazali writing-PG ✓ Cambridge University founded-PG ✓ heresy investigation in Paris-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Medievals / William Of Ockham / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of William at Ockham-PG ✓ William dies in Munich-PG ✓ William examined for heresy-PG ✓ William graduates from Oxford-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Neo-Platonists / Plotinus / Influential Ideas ✓ Amelius devoted to Plotinus-PG ✓ Amelius left Plotinus-PG ✓ Plotinus died-PG ✓ Plotinus studies with Ammonius Saccas-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Neo-Platonists / Porphyry / Influential Ideas ✓ Porphyry goes to Sicily-PG ✓ Porphyry studies with Plotinus-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Peripatetics / Aristotle / Aristotle's 'Ethics' / Influential Ideas ✓ The 'Ethics' doesn't show us our duties-Prichard Thinkers To 200 Ce / Peripatetics / Aristotle / Aristotle's 'Metaphysics' / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Metaphysics' Z explains 'Categories'-Wedin ✓ He has three views of metaphysics-Aristotle ✓ Key books: ,,, ,,-Politis ✓ Numbers and letters of the books-Aristotle Thinkers To 200 Ce / Peripatetics / Aristotle / Aristotle The Man / Influential Ideas ✓ Aristotle arrives at the Academy-PG ✓ Aristotle charged with impiety-PG ✓ Aristotle dies in Chalcis-PG ✓ Aristotle founds the Lyceum-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Peripatetics / Lyceum / Influential Ideas ✓ Aristotle founds the Lyceum-PG ✓ birth of Theophrastus-PG ✓ death of Theophrastus-PG ✓ he is in Stagira with Aristotle-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Platonists / Academy / Influential Ideas ✓ Academy gives up scepticism-PG ✓ Aenesidemus left the Academy-PG ✓ Aenesidemus produces ten sceptical modes-PG ✓ Aeschines head of the Academy-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Platonists / Plato / Plato The Man / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Parmenides' is the masterpiece of dialectic-Hegel ✓ back in Athens-PG ✓ founded the Academy-PG ✓ last visit to Sicily-PG To go fast, go alone. To go far, go together. (african proverb)person_outline Thinkers To 200 Ce / Platonists / Platonists / Influential Ideas ✓ Archytas a successful general-PG ✓ Archytas met Plato-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Platonists / Xenocrates / Influential Ideas ✓ Death of Xenocrates, aged-Dancy,R ✓ Xenocrates and Aristotle travel-Dancy,R ✓ Xenocrates born in Chalcedon-Dancy,R ✓ Xenocrates Head of Academy-Dancy,R Thinkers To 200 Ce / Pre-Socratics / Anaxagoras / Influential Ideas ✓ Anaxagoras a friend of Pericles-PG ✓ Anaxagoras arrived in Athens-PG ✓ Anaxagoras charged with impiety-PG ✓ Anaxagoras died-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Pre-Socratics / Empedocles / Influential Ideas ✓ Empedocles aids democracy in Acragas-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Pre-Socratics / Empedocles / Good/ Influential Ideas ✓ evil struggle, four elements-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Pre-Socratics / Heraclitus / Influential Ideas ✓ Heraclitus at Ephesus-PG ✓ Sage Heraclitus gave splendid advice-Summers ✓ I revere Heraclitus-Nietzsche Thinkers To 200 Ce / Pre-Socratics / Pre-Socratics / Influential Ideas ✓ BCE: Zoroastrianism founded-PG ✓ CE: Manicheanism founded-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Pre-Socratics / Xenophanes / Influential Ideas ✓ Xenophanes founded epistemology-Annas Thinkers To 200 Ce / Pythagoreans / Philolaus / Influential Ideas ✓ Philolaus wrote a book-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Pythagoreans / Pythagoras / Influential Ideas ✓ Protagoras writes laws for Thurii-PG ✓ Pythagoras born on Samos-PG ✓ Pythagoras dies-PG ✓ Pythagoras forced out of Croton-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Pythagoreans / Pythagoreans / Influential Ideas ✓ Pythagoreans expelled from Croton-PG ✓ Pythagoreans are impressively silent-Isocrates ✓ Pythagoreans started definitions-Politis ✓ The tektraktys embodies natural harmony-Sext Empiricus Don’t cry because it’s over, smile because it happened. person_outline Thinkers To 200 Ce / Renaissance / Giordano Bruno / Influential Ideas ✓ Bruno executed for heresy-PG ✓ Bruno thought of himself as a Messiah-Yates ✓ Bruno was not an atheist-Yates ✓ Egyptian magic is the true religion-Yates Thinkers To 200 Ce / Renaissance / Hobbes / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Hobbes-PG ✓ death of Hobbes-PG ✓ Hobbes's 'Leviathan'-PG ✓ Hobbes flees to France-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Renaissance / Machiavelli / Influential Ideas ✓ Machiavelli's 'The Prince'-PG ✓ Machiavelli freed politics from religion-Watson Thinkers To 200 Ce / Renaissance / Marcilio Ficino / Influential Ideas ✓ Ficino founds a Florentine Academy-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Renaissance / Montaigne / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Montaigne-PG ✓ death of Montaigne-PG ✓ Montaigne's 'Essays' vol-PG ✓ Montaigne mayor of Bordeaux-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Renaissance / Pico Della Mirandola / Influential Ideas ✓ Mirandola active at Florentine Academy-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Renaissance / Renaissance / Influential Ideas ✓ Erasmus met More in England-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Sceptics / Carneades / Influential Ideas ✓ Birth of Carneades-PG ✓ Carneades head of the Academy-PG ✓ Carneades studied at the Academy-PG ✓ Carneades went to Rome-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Sceptics / Cicero / Influential Ideas ✓ Cicero finds no stoics in Athens-PG ✓ Cicero belongs to no one school of thought-Cicero ✓ In early th cent Cicero was an ideal-Cicero Thinkers To 200 Ce / Sceptics / Pyrrho / Influential Ideas ✓ Pyrrho in India-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Sceptics / Sextus Empiricus / Influential Ideas ✓ Sextus's 'Outlines of Pyrrhonism'-PG Smile, breathe and go slowly. - thich nhat hanhperson_outline Thinkers To 200 Ce / Socratics / Socrates / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Socrates-PG ✓ Socrates an object of satire-PG ✓ Socrates at the battle of Potidaea-PG ✓ Socrates executed-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Socratics / Socratics / Influential Ideas ✓ Simon was the inventor of Socratic dialogues-Simon ✓ Socrates inspired every ancient school-Annas Thinkers To 200 Ce / Sophists / Gorgias / Influential Ideas ✓ Gorgias in Athens-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Sophists / Protagoras / Influential Ideas ✓ Protagoras combines Heraclitus and Democritus-Nietzsche ✓ Protagoras was materialist about humans-Roochnik Thinkers To 200 Ce / Sophists / Sophists / Influential Ideas ✓ Antiphon executed-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Stoics / Chrysippus / Influential Ideas ✓ Chrysippus head of the Stoa-PG ✓ death of Chrysippus-PG ✓ People only need corn and water-Chrysippus Thinkers To 200 Ce / Stoics / Cleanthes / Influential Ideas ✓ Cleanthes head of the Stoa-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Stoics / Epictetus / Influential Ideas ✓ Epictetus's 'Discourses'-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Stoics / Marcus Aurelius / Influential Ideas ✓ Marcus Aurelius's 'Meditations'-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Stoics / Panaetius / Influential Ideas ✓ death of Panaetius-PG ✓ Panaetius head of the Stoa-PG Thinkers To 200 Ce / Stoics / Posidonius / Influential Ideas ✓ Cicero studies with Posidonius-PG ✓ Posidonius founds Rhodes school-PG ✓ Posidonius studies with Panaetius-PG ✓ Posidonius visits Rome-PG Action speaks louder than words but not nearly as often. - mark twainperson_outline Thinkers To 200 Ce / Stoics / Seneca / Influential Ideas ✓ suicide of Seneca-PG ✓ Seneca was opposed to all human cruelty-Grayling Thinkers To 200 Ce / Stoics / Stoics / Influential Ideas ✓ Neo stoicism began in about-Lipsius ✓ Stoicism aimed at a beautiful life-Foucault ✓ Stoicism is determinist, physical,teleological-Zeno of Citium Thinkers To 200 Ce / Stoics / Zeno Of Citium / Influential Ideas ✓ birth of Zeno {the stoic}-PG ✓ Zeno founded the Stoa-PG ✓ Zeno studies in Athens-PG ✓ Zeno studies with Crates-PG Thought / Artificial Intelligence / Artificial Intelligence / Influential Ideas ✓ A speaking machine is a possibility-La Mettrie ✓ AI can't avoid massive unpredictability-MacIntyre ✓ Brain chemistry has a key functional role-Dennett ✓ Content is both syntactic and semantic-Fodor Thought / Artificial Intelligence / Turing Machines / Influential Ideas ✓ Computation is relative not natural-Searle ✓ Pure functionalism makes mind a Turing machine-Block ✓ Turing Machine is a brilliant idea about mind-Fodor ✓ Turing machines have just three requirements-Block Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Abstract' now means non spatio temporal-Brown,JR ✓ 'Abstract' used to mean 'from particulars'-Brown,JR ✓ 'Abstracta' are epistemological, not ontic-Plantinga ✓ Abstract objects are God's thoughts-Plantinga Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Abstraction By Equivalence / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Suicide' is the set of self killing cases-Dummett ✓ A real direction requires a line-Lowe ✓ Abstract from concepts by relations-Fine,K ✓ Abstract from the set, not its elements?-Tait Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Abstraction By Ignoring / Influential Ideas ✓ A pure circle can't identify an actual circle-Szabó ✓ Abstract distinctness and order for number-Dedekind ✓ Abstracta are generalised appearances-Locke ✓ Abstraction concerns general universal truths-Leibniz Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Abstractionism Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Abstraction cannot distinguish ambiguities-Barnes,J ✓ Abstraction collects too many attributes-Barnes,J ✓ Abstraction fails if there's no common feature-Barnes,J ✓ Abstraction is logical, not mental-Dummett Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Abstractionism Critique / Judgement Separates Strking/ Influential Ideas ✓ being struck-Geach Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Generalisation / Influential Ideas ✓ General words abstract from the circumstances-Locke ✓ Generalization precedes similarity spotting-Lehrer ✓ Generalizations use variables not abstractions-Sorensen ✓ Mere recognition won't generalise-Geach Nothing is certain except for death and taxes. -christopher bullockperson_outline Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Psychological Abstraction / Influential Ideas ✓ Abstract gets maths from most matter-Aquinas ✓ Abstract recognition might precede concepts-Price,HH ✓ Abstract representations, or entities?-Burgess&Rosen ✓ Abstract simple types from tokens?-Shapiro Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Way Of Conflation / Influential Ideas ✓ How do we abstract extrinsic features?-Lewis ✓ Sets and universals can be causal-Lewis ✓ Some abstracta have locations-Lewis Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Way Of Conflation / Abstraction Might Pick Out Tropes/ Influential Ideas ✓ universals-Lewis Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Way Of Conflation / Abstractions As Sets/ Influential Ideas ✓ universals is too much-Rosen Thought / Concepts / Abstract Concepts / Way Of Example / Influential Ideas ✓ A centre of mass is abstract but located-Lowe ✓ A non spatial set of books is on a shelf-Rosen ✓ Abstract chess is in space and time-Rosen ✓ Abstracta are non spatial and non causal-Rosen Thought / Concepts / Concepts / Influential Ideas ✓ Concepts are forces, not functions-Deleuze&Guattari ✓ Concepts are universals of which we are aware-Russell ✓ Concepts represent, enable, or are senses-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Concepts unite propositions-Leibniz Thought / Concepts / Concepts And Language / Concepts And Language / Influential Ideas ✓ Concepts have content, not meaning-Harman ✓ Concepts need a language community-Davidson Thought / Concepts / Concepts And Language / Concepts Are Linguistic / Influential Ideas ✓ A concept is a predicate's meaning-Frege ✓ Concepts are language-Quine ✓ Concepts are possible predicates-Frege ✓ Language reifies concepts-Dennett Thought / Concepts / Concepts And Language / Concepts Without Language / Influential Ideas ✓ Chess playing aphasiacs have concepts-Geach ✓ Concepts can be formed, and then named-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Concepts do not require consciousness-Dennett Thought / Concepts / Ontology Of Concepts / Concepts As Abilities / Influential Ideas ✓ Concept individuation or possession prior?-Fodor ✓ Concept possession is ability to go on-Wittgenstein ✓ Concepts are abilities, not occurrences-Putnam ✓ Concepts are epistemic capacities-Fodor Thought / Concepts / Ontology Of Concepts / Concepts As Representations / Influential Ideas ✓ Attitude without representation seems possible-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Cats must satisfy a concept CAT-Fodor ✓ Concepts face both thought and world-Fodor ✓ Having a concept is thinking about it-Fodor Courage doesn’t always roar. Sometimes courage is the quiet voice at the end of the day saying, ‘i will try again tomorrow. - mary anne radmacherperson_outline Thought / Concepts / Ontology Of Concepts / Fregean Concepts / Influential Ideas ✓ Concepts are tied to rationality-Peacocke ✓ Concepts fixed by reference conditions-Peacocke ✓ Concepts senses block causal powers-Fodor ✓ Do concepts have a 'sense'?-Fodor Thought / Concepts / Ontology Of Concepts / Fregean Concepts / Concept/Conception For Reference/ Influential Ideas ✓ sense-Wiggins Thought / Concepts / Origin Of Concepts / Nativist Concepts / Influential Ideas ✓ A hypothesis needs innate concepts-Fodor ✓ Getting concepts from stereotypes is innate-Fodor Thought / Concepts / Origin Of Concepts / Origin Of Concepts / Influential Ideas ✓ Concepts arise from self mapping by the brain-Edelman&Tononi ✓ Concepts result from brain mapping-Edelman&Tononi ✓ Minds create concepts, then apply them-Geach ✓ Nobody knows how concepts are acquired-Fodor Thought / Concepts / Structure Of Concepts / Analysis Of Concepts / Influential Ideas ✓ Concept analysis needs non concepts-Peacocke ✓ Concept complexity has implications-Fodor ✓ Concept explanation needs reference and truth-Peacocke ✓ Unanalysability is always possible-Moreland Thought / Concepts / Structure Of Concepts / Classical Concepts / Influential Ideas ✓ Classical theory explains a lot-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Concepts give extension conditions-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Maybe concepts lack structure-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Study possible cases to analyse conditions-Jackson Thought / Concepts / Structure Of Concepts / Concepts As Prototypes / Influential Ideas ✓ Basic prototypes won't explain complexes-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Categorising involves more than appearance-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Complex concepts may lack prototypes-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Concepts rely on typical examples-Swoyer Thought / Concepts / Structure Of Concepts / Conceptual Atomism / Influential Ideas ✓ Compositionality needs atomic concepts-Fodor ✓ Concept content is just the reference-Fodor ✓ Derive all concepts from basics-Carnap ✓ Relations to the world determine concepts-Margolis&Laurence Thought / Concepts / Structure Of Concepts / Conceptual Priority / Influential Ideas ✓ Are parts prior to their wholes or not?-Aristotle ✓ Conceptual priority is barely intelligible-Oliver ✓ Greater simplicity shows conceptual priority-Dummett ✓ Maybe order of definition decides priority-Dummett Thought / Concepts / Structure Of Concepts / Conceptual Structure / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Brown dog' needs 'brown' and 'dog'-Fodor ✓ 'Green' involves many other concepts-Sellars ✓ Concept structure explains five problems-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Concepts are inherently incomplete-Frege Thought / Concepts / Structure Of Concepts / Theory Theory Of Concepts / Influential Ideas ✓ Concepts are defined by a role in a theory-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Concepts are roles in groups of propositions-Peacocke ✓ Concepts will vary if the theory is holistic-Margolis&Laurence ✓ Theory theory offers no explanation-Fodor To go fast, go alone. To go far, go together. (african proverb)person_outline Thought / Content / Broad Content / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Gold' means what experts mean-Leibniz ✓ 'Gold' refers to many facts we don't know-Leibniz ✓ Broad content entails existence-Crane ✓ Broad content won't explain behaviour-Davidson Thought / Content / Content / Influential Ideas ✓ All ideas are adventitious and sense based-Gassendi ✓ An idea can be fixed, but its content change-Perry ✓ Animals must represent and remember times-Rey ✓ Causal and teleological theories of content-Lowe Thought / Content / Intension / Influential Ideas ✓ Intension determines extension-Lewis,CI ✓ Intension is a conjunction of properties-Schwartz ✓ Intensional truth depends on conception-Crane ✓ Intensions are functions mapping expressions-Swoyer Thought / Content / Narrow Content / Influential Ideas ✓ Beliefs depend on beliefs as well as the world-Kim ✓ Concepts are causally linked to reality-Fodor ✓ God could think before Creation-Merricks ✓ Solipsism is not an incoherent hypothesis-Merricks Thought / Content / Twin Earth / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Water' is a substance, not an idea-Putnam ✓ 'Water' is liquid, HO may not be-Forbes,G ✓ 'Water' usage and essence of water differ-Jackson ✓ Concepts cover both Earth and Twin Earth-Segal Thought / Mechanics Of Thought / Mentalese / Influential Ideas ✓ Beliefs have to be structured states-Fodor ✓ Folk psychology doesn't imply mentalese-Lewis ✓ Language is ambiguous, thought isn't-Fodor ✓ Learned language is constrained by mind power-Fodor Thought / Mechanics Of Thought / Mentalese / Lot Is Subject/ Influential Ideas ✓ predicate and logical-Margolis&Laurence Thought / Mechanics Of Thought / Modularity Of Mind / Influential Ideas ✓ Babies have fixed syntax patterns-Fodor ✓ Blind children still talk about space-Fodor ✓ Broad thinking and modules are quite different-Fodor ✓ Childhood grammar is largely accurate-Rey Thought / Modes Of Thought / Folk Psychology / Influential Ideas ✓ A culture without folk psychology is baffling-Kim ✓ Desires and beliefs don't actually exist-Dennett ✓ Driving cars needs folk psychology-Dennett ✓ Folk psychology & neuroscience don't conflict-Heil Thought / Modes Of Thought / Propositional Attitudes / Influential Ideas ✓ Content is either neutral or motivating-Rey ✓ How do you know your attitude to propositions?-Kim ✓ Propositional attitudes involve mentalese-Fodor ✓ Surely intentionality requires representation?-Lyons Truth / Coherence Truth / Coherence Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ All knowledge is inferentially connected-Descartes ✓ An omniscient being could predict everything-Leibniz ✓ Coherence is about justification, not truth-Williams,M ✓ Coherence leads to all truths being necessary-Dancy,J What's the point in being clever, if you can't prove it. -sherlock holmesperson_outline Truth / Coherence Truth / Coherence Truth Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ A coherence theory of truth implies idealism-McGinn ✓ Coherence is a test for truth, not its meaning-Russell ✓ Many coherent belief sets seem possible-Russell ✓ There are many coherent sets of propositions-Dancy,J Truth / Correspondence Truth / Correspondence Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ All enquiry MUST aim at correspondence-Searle ✓ Belief are true if the facts correspond-Russell ✓ Congruence fails for existential truths-Joslin ✓ Correspondence as many one or one many?-Armstrong Truth / Correspondence Truth / Correspondence Truth Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ A country can have many good maps-Austin,JL ✓ Concepts and reality can't correspond-Putnam ✓ Conflicting propositions can fit the facts-Dancy,J ✓ Correspondence has to invent 'facts'-Mulligan&Simons&Smith Truth / Correspondence Truth / Facts / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Facta' are truth makers for facts-Mellor ✓ 'It is a fact that p' just means 'p'-Engel ✓ A fact is what it is rational to accept-Putnam ✓ A mindless world has facts but not truths-Russell Truth / Deflationary Truth / Deflationary Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ 'True' is just occasionally useful-Burgess&Rosen ✓ 'Truth' is just a mark of assertion-Ayer ✓ Deflation can't explain that we aim at truth-Horwich ✓ Deflationism denies reasons for beliefs-Engel Truth / Deflationary Truth / Minimalist Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ 'True' is a simple world like 'and'-Engel ✓ 'It is day' is true if it is day-Zeno of Citium ✓ Minimal theories of truth have slim ontology-PG ✓ Minimalism says truth is and isn't a property-Boghossian Truth / Deflationary Truth / Redundant Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ 'True' isn't redundant where indexicals occur-Putnam ✓ 'It is true that P' means simply P-Wittgenstein ✓ 'It is true that x' means no more than x-Ramsey ✓ Just speak the single sentence; skip truth-Quine Truth / Deflationary Truth / Semantic Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ 'True' refers to possible statements-Strawson,P ✓ 'Truth' of sentences reminds us of reality-Quine ✓ Add primitive reference to Tarski's theory-Field,H ✓ Explain semantics nonsemantically-Tarski Truth / Pragmatic Truth / Pragmatic Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ Radical pragmatists abandon truth-Stich ✓ The 'truth' of thinking is a practical matter-Marx ✓ Truth is best belief not good representation-Rorty ✓ Truth is defending your view succesfully-Rorty Truth / Pragmatic Truth / Pragmatic Truth Critique / Influential Ideas ✓ Judge truth by causes, not effects-Russell ✓ Never ask whether truth is useful-Nietzsche ✓ Pragmatism is about belief, not truth-Engel Truth / Truth Problems / Future Truths / Influential Ideas ✓ Options are necessary, not actual events-Aristotle Imagination is more important than knowledge. -albert einsteinperson_outline Truth / Truth Problems / Truth / Truth Concerns Combination/ Influential Ideas ✓ separation-Aristotle Truth / Truth Problems / Truth Bearers / Influential Ideas ✓ Are concepts true or false?-Hegel ✓ Frege attached truth to propositions-Frege ✓ Mental or verbal propositions are true-Locke ✓ Only assertions are true or false-Sext Empiricus Truth / Truth Problems / Truth Makers / Influential Ideas ✓ Dependent objects are the truth makers-Mulligan&Simons&Smith ✓ Fictions have truths without truthmakers-Azzouni ✓ One truth maker for all necessary truths?-Oliver ✓ Sentences don't designate truth makers-Mulligan&Simons&Smith Truth / Truth Problems / Value Of Truth / Influential Ideas ✓ Good is a truth, and truth is a good-Aquinas ✓ Nothing more beautiful than truth-Locke ✓ The mark and product of truth is virtue-Montaigne ✓ The value of truth is also a problem-Nietzsche Truth / Truth Problems / Verisimilitude / Influential Ideas ✓ Verisimilitude increases predictive power-Newton Smith ✓ Versimilitude is close to the true world-Lewis ✓ If error has degrees then so does truth-Aristotle ✓ Implications of theory won't prove probability-Newton Smith Wisdom / Analytical Philosophy / Against Analysis / Influential Ideas ✓ All analyses are either trivial or false-Sorensen ✓ Analysis shows parts and not structure-Ayer ✓ Analytical philosophy is trivial and technical-Mautner ✓ Analytical philosophy lacks synoptic vision-Benardete,JA Wisdom / Analytical Philosophy / Analysis / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Is': existence,predication,identity,classify-PG ✓ All complex statements can be analysed-Wittgenstein ✓ All philosophy should begin with analysis-Russell ✓ All progress requires analysis-Russell Wisdom / Analytical Philosophy / Ordinary Language / Influential Ideas ✓ Analyse language to solve problems-Mautner ✓ Beginning philosophy with language is a trap-Heil ✓ Best philosophy studies actual word usage-Strawson,P ✓ Focus on determined natures, not names-Feuerbach Wisdom / Continental Philosophy / Continental Philosophy / Influential Ideas ✓ Analytical is more rigorous than continental-Williamson ✓ Baudrillard is a relativist-Baudrillard ✓ Conservatism and mere criticism are a plague-Deleuze&Guattari ✓ Continental philosophy fights nihilism-Critchley Wisdom / Continental Philosophy / Deconstruction / Influential Ideas ✓ Deconstruction gives history and repressions-Derrida ✓ Deconstruction is not neutral; it intervenes-Derrida ✓ Différance creates opposed concepts-Derrida ✓ Justice is undeconstructable-Derrida Wisdom / Continental Philosophy / Hermeneutics / Influential Ideas ✓ Hermeneutics is sympathetic or hostile-Ricoeur ✓ Positivism challenges hermeneutic knowledge-Mautner ✓ Interpret the whole or the part first?-Mautner ✓ Interpreters understand more than authors-Schleiermacher We don't see things as they are, we see them as we are. - anais ninperson_outline Wisdom / Continental Philosophy / Linguistic Structuralism / Influential Ideas ✓ Structuralism replaces categories by language-Rowlands Wisdom / Continental Philosophy / Phenomenology / Influential Ideas ✓ All consciousness is of something-Sartre ✓ Bracketing subtracts entailments about reality-Husserl ✓ Non synthetic phenomenalism is literature-Benardete,JA ✓ Phenomenology clarifies our social world-Critchley Wisdom / History Of Philosophy / History Of Ideas / Influential Ideas ✓ Deconstruction is romanticism's end-Scruton ✓ Logic was originally a branch of rhetoric-Devlin ✓ Modern culture was born in Jena in the s-Svendsen ✓ Six candidates for the one big idea-Watson Wisdom / History Of Philosophy / History Of Ideas / Th/ Influential Ideas ✓ th century saw the rise of altruism-MacIntyre Wisdom / History Of Philosophy / History Of Philosophy / Influential Ideas ✓ Ontology was logic, then language-Badiou ✓ Ignorance brings repetition in philosophy-Santayana Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Nature Of Metaphysics / Influential Ideas ✓ Maybe metaphysics seeks real essences-Mumford ✓ Metaphysic is a priori universals of physics-Kant ✓ Metaphysic studies intelligible being-Leibniz ✓ Metaphysics clarifies conceptual schemes-Kim Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Philosophy / Despair Over Philosophy / Influential Ideas ✓ Ancient beliefs resists all arguments-Euripides ✓ Don't even start, let's just stay put-Chuang Tzu ✓ Every absurdity has been said by a philosopher-Descartes ✓ Human knowledge may not produce well being-Gray Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Philosophy / Hopes For Philosophy / Influential Ideas ✓ A well posed problem is a problem solved-Bergson ✓ All expressible questions can be answered-Wittgenstein ✓ Even bad philosophy has value-Aristotle ✓ Guardians are rulers of virtue and wisdom-Plato Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Philosophy / Invocation To Philosophy / Influential Ideas ✓ By sharing our logos we reach truth-Aristotle ✓ Everyone has the potential for wisdom-Heraclitus ✓ Hard thought is profitable even if it fails-Aristotle ✓ Knowledge of unity and plurality is supreme-Plato Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Philosophy / Philosophy Defined / Influential Ideas ✓ Critical philosophy questions domination-Foucault ✓ Philosophers articulate what we all know-Schopenhauer ✓ Philosophers care about others' cares-Foucault ✓ Philosophy begins where science ends-Katz Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Possibility Of Metaphysics / Influential Ideas ✓ Bad metaphysics is totally unverifiable-Ayer ✓ Did metaphysics end with Hegel?-Benardete,JA ✓ Doves dream of flying in outer space-Kant ✓ God's wisdom is knowable a priori-Leibniz Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted. -albert einsteinperson_outline Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Wisdom / Nature Of Wisdom / Influential Ideas ✓ 'Wisdom' is hostile to life-Nietzsche ✓ Speaking the truth deifies man-Pythagoras ✓ A wise person can doubt everything-Montaigne ✓ An instant of wisdom equals eternity-Chrysippus Wisdom / Nature Of Philosophy / Wisdom / Wise People / Influential Ideas ✓ As philosophers study order they acquire order-Plato ✓ Have principles in readiness for understanding-Aurelius ✓ Knowledge is silent; ignorance speaks-Lao Tzu ✓ The old are not necessarily wise-Plato Wisdom / Scientific Philosophy / Aims Of Science / Influential Ideas ✓ Can we explain scientific change rationally?-Newton Smith ✓ How do we choose between explanations?-Newton Smith ✓ Realism explains science's success-Putnam ✓ Science aims at necessary truth-Aristotle Wisdom / Scientific Philosophy / Positivism / Influential Ideas ✓ Maybe theory and observation aren't separate-Newton Smith ✓ Measurement needs people and instruments-Lowe ✓ Positivism is our culmination-Comte ✓ Positivism seeks laws, not truth-Comte Wisdom / Scientific Philosophy / Scientism / Influential Ideas ✓ 'True' is basic to science, but not scientific-Putnam ✓ Knowledge is wider than science-Putnam ✓ My physics rests on my Meditations-Descartes ✓ Ontologists investigate holes and colours-Merricks About Philosophy Quotes & Ideas -Browse subjects or search -Click on subject to see its ideas -Share ideas on social media